1.1 Background To The Study
Organization has no opinion to whether
to appraise its personnel and their performance or not just as training
is a must after procurement, so is the personnel appraisal. Therefore,
it is inevitable that the performance of the hire personnel will be
evaluated by someone. It has been established that the manager job is to
achieve the predetermined result through its people. This is an
exercise that required cooperative and term effort on the part of the
managers and employee under him.
The test of an organization success is
its abilities to create value sufficient to compensate for the burden
imposed upon resource contributors. There are two categories of
appraisal; the formal appraisal is relation and unduly in nature and the
other informal appraisal. It is an assessment of a planned way; the
planned approaches can be divided into system through which supervisor
can appraise on person comparative basic (ranking person list etc) and
those in which there is joint superior subordinate establishment and
appraisal to position goals accomplishment. The formal appraisal relies
on some training supervisor to rate objective through amending errors
such as leniency, harshness basis and central tendency.
The informal on the other hand is a
continuous assessment of an individual performance by his manager in his
normal course of work, it is of an adhoc nature and its mainly
determined by inactive felling as a fact of evidence of result it is
normally a native product of the day to day relationship of the manager
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The effects of performance appraisal on
employee the employee performance appraisal is an important career
development tool for the manager and employee. The manager can help
guide the employee on the path to corporate advancement, and the
employee gets a clearer understanding on what is expected from him or
her in his / her daily duties performance appraisal have a wide
varieties of effects on employees that managers must identify and
understanding such effects are:
1) Motivation: An employee
performance appraisal can act as motivation for an employee to improve
his productivity. When an employee sees his goals clearly defined, his
performance challenges identified and career development solutions in
places to help advance his career, the effect is to motivate the
employee to achieve those goals. Creating a comprehensive plan for
employee for employee development and give an employee achievements to
strive for will inspire a higher level of efficiency.
2) Charity: Employee performance
their duties to the best of their abilities throughout the year base on
guidance from management part of a performance appraisal is when a
manager and employee review the job description and compare the
employee’s performance with expectations. This gives the employee a
feelings of clarity and understanding will help him better perform his
Common errors in performance appraisal
- Take responsibility: To prepare for the annual review, a manager
should keep note of all of the employee’s accomplishments and challenges
throughout the year. When these are presented to the employee during
the appraisal, it gives the employee the opportunity to benefit from her
accomplishments and accept responsibility for the performance
challenges. By claiming ownership of performance issues, the employee
makes the process of career development a more personal commitment.
- Team work: During a performance appraisal, a manager needs to take
time to show the employee how his performance affects productivity of
the entire organization. When employee understands how their performance
affects the ability of others to do their jobs, it helps put his own
job duties into an overall company contest. It helps improve the motion
of teamwork among the staff and can also encourage age cooperation to
achieve corporate goals.
The Effects Of Performance Appraisal On Organization: Performance
appraisal doesn’t benefit only employees. Organizations that use the
result of performance appraisal to identify areas of strength and
opportunity can benefit as well performance appraisal can provide an
indication of area of training need as well as direction for leadership
development, performance improvement and succession planning.
Identifying Areas of Strength: The
result of performance appraisal can be assessed to identify areas of
strong performance across all employees by departments or by
demographics. Standardized performance assessment allows companies to
aggregate, calculate, and analyze results to show where performance is
strong. These areas of strength then can serve as benchmark and
opportunities for searching of best practices for other areas of the
Identifying Training Needs: Evaluating
the result of performance appraisals can provide managers, human
resources department and organizations with an indication of where
additional training and development may be necessary, says Lin
Grensing-Pophal, author of “human resources essential” for instance,
result may indication. The employees collectivity are scoring low on
items related to use of technology or customer services. These may
become target area for the creation and implementation of training
programs designed to boost employee competence and performance. Results
also may be assessed at the individual department and division levels.
1.3 Research Questions
The following was the research question gotten from the project topic, they include:
- Does performance appraisal improve employees productivity in an organization?
- Does positive appraisal yield better result than negative appraisal?
- Does views of performance assessment differently depends on a particular needs and wants?
1.4 Objective of the Study
A company is always set up to meet up
some predetermined task, which are the objectives. Their objectives
being what should be of paramount in the mind at all concerned. It is
blended into the day to day activities of the employees of an
organization by the management tool called management by objective
(MBO). This is harmonization of individual objective with group of
company objective for easy goal attainment. The objectives of the
company are as follows:
- To provide conflict and other processed areas for both internal and external
- To reduce its operative cost so that their products can get the market at moderate price.
- Attempts to meet the rated capacity of the plant which is one
hundred and thirteen thousand cases of Nigeria Bottling company
conflates per annum.
- To provide employment for the people in the locality and to educate
the country in general to reflect the geographical irrelativeness of Edo
- To produce these conceal that satisfy’s both national and international standard.
1.5 Statement of Hypotheses
The formulation of research hypothesis for this study are:
- Informing workers of their rating will not help to improve performance.
- Positive appraisal does not yield better result in performance appraisal
- Views of performance assessment differently depend does not on the employee’s particular needs and wants.
1.6 Scope of the Study
Emphasis will be on key words of
performance appraisal, its steps, process and problem that are involved
and also effects of performance appraisal on productivity and training
for improved performance and to be analyzed. Also a study on how
employee’s appraisal is carried out by every department but is the
personnel department which is one of the main functions.
Moreover, since this research work is
limit to Nigeria bottling company, it is actually designed to assess the
need for employee to improve their productivity it will also attempt to
identify an appraisal of management by objectives.
1.7 Significance of the Study
The study of performance appraisal plays
a vital role in the management and stability of any organization. It is
important therefore, to undertake such a study since this constitute
the main objective which serves as a means of improving employees
productivity, it should be noted that the survival of a business rest on
the efficiency of implementing the performance appraisal.
Though, this piece of study was written
by the researcher and was based on both primary and consultation of the
secondary data, its significant can be under stated.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
There is great need on the part of the
researcher to reveal certain problems encountered in the course of
writing this project. There were some constrains which as limiting
factors are worth mentioning first, the issues of time there was not
enough time for the researcher to adequately carry on indent worth. This
was due to the high schedule of the school political impasses in this
Secondly, it was certainly not easy for
the researchers to get vital information from the company understudy as
they were termed confidentially. Most of the workers too declined
Finally, in spite of these difficulties, a justifiable and acceptable work has done to this research work.
1.9 Operational Definition Of Terms
Productivity: This is the rate at which products are produced, especially in relation to the time, money and workers needed to produce them.
This is a business meeting between a worker and their managers in order
to discuss how well they are doing in their work comment; the positive
involvement of participant to an organizations goal is the same view,
negative involvement is seen as alienation.
Developing Individual: By advice information and attempt as shopping their behaviours by praise or punishment.
Product Liability: It
is the duty of a company that makes or sell a product to pay if their
product causes damage or injury product placement. It is the use of a
company in a firm or television show a way of advertising the product.
Checking: The effectiveness of personnel procedures and practices.
Motivational Staff: This brings about reaching the organization standard and objectives.