PHARMACY PROJECT TOPICS AND MATERIALS

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ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF METHANOL EXTRACT AND FRACTIONS OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LAM. ROOT BARK ON CLINICAL ISOLATES OF METHICILLIN RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS

This research project material is available: ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF METHANOL EXTRACT AND FRACTIONS OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LAM. ROOT BARK ON CLINICAL ISOLATES OF METHICILLIN RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS.

confirmation was done using Oxoid® DR0900 penicillin binding protein (pbp2ˈ) latex agglutination test kits. Pulverised Moringa oleifera root bark was defatted with n-hexane to yield hexane fraction (HEF). The dried marc was extracted with methanol using Soxhlet extractor to obtain crude methanol extract (ME). Methanol extract was adsorbed on Silical gel (60-200 mesh) and eluted in succession to obtain dichloromethane fraction (DMF), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and methanol fraction (MEF). Qualitative phytochemical analyses of the extracts were carried out using standard procedures. The antimicrobial activities of ME, HEF, DMF, EAF and MEF were evaluated on the MRSA, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were recorded and compared with the standard disc antimicrobial test results. The extract fractions were analysed using gas chromatographic-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for their bioactive compounds. The preliminary acute toxicity and sub-acute toxicity of ME and HEF were evaluated.

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Type: Project Materials| Format: Ms Word| Attribute: Documentation Only| Pages: 65 Pages| Chapters: 1-5 chapters

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DEVELOPMENT OF LIPID-BASED MICRO SUSPENSIONS FOR OPHTHALMIC DELIVERY OF GENTAAMICIN

This research project material is available: DEVELOPMENT OF LIPID-BASED MICRO SUSPENSIONS FOR OPHTHALMIC DELIVERY OF GENTAAMICIN.

The bioavailability of drugs from conventional eye drops is generally low. Many studies have demonstrated that new and more complex ophthalmic drug forms exhibit advantage over traditional ones and are able to increase the bioavailability of the active substance by, among others, reducing the susceptibility of drug forms to defense mechanisms of the human eye, extending contact time of drug with the cornea, increasing the penetration through the complex anatomical structure of the eye, and providing controlled release of drugs into the eye tissues, which allows reducing the drug application frequency. In this study, lipid-based microsuspensions of gentamicin were developed and investigated as alternative for ophthalmic delivery of gentamicin.

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Type: Project Materials| Format: Ms Word| Attribute: Documentation Only| Pages: 50 Pages| Chapters: 1-5 chapters

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EVALUATION OF PHARMACOGNOSTICPARAMETERS AND HEPATOTOXIC EFFECTS OF EXTRACTSOF CASSYTHA FILIFORMIS LINN ON PARACETAMOL-INDUCED LIVER DISORDERS IN WISTER RATS

This research project material is available: EVALUATION OF PHARMACOGNOSTICPARAMETERS AND HEPATOTOXIC EFFECTS OF EXTRACTSOF CASSYTHA FILIFORMIS LINN ON PARACETAMOL-INDUCED LIVER DISORDERS IN WISTER RATS .

The role of plants in the treatment of disease is exemplified by their employment in all the major systems of medicine irrespective of the underlying philosophical premise. As example, we have the western medicine with origin in Mesopotamia and Egypt, the Unani (Islamic) and the Ayurvedic (Hindu) system and in Western Asia and the Indian subcontinent and those of the Orient (China, Japan, Tibetetc.). There is a great wealth of knowledge concerning the medicinal,narcotic and other properties of plants that is still transmitted orally from generation to generation by tribal societies, particularly those of the tropical Africa, North and South America and the Pacific countries (Evans, 2009). These are areas containing the world’s greatest number of plant species, not found elsewhere, and with the westernization of so many of the people of these zones there is pressing need to record local knowledge before it is lost forever. In addition, with the extermination of plant species progressing at an alarming rate in certain regions, even before plant have been botanically recorded, much less studied chemically and pharmacologically, the need arises for increased efforts directed towards the conservation of gene pools (Evans, 2009).

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Type: Project Materials| Format: Ms Word| Attribute: Documentation Only| Pages: 65 Pages| Chapters: 1-5 chapters

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PHARMACOECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF HIV/AIDS MANAGEMENT

This research project material is available: PHARMACOECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF HIV/AIDS MANAGEMENT .

The HIV/AIDS pandemic has resulted in mortality surge and life expectancy drop throughout the world. Developing countries are mostly affected due to their limited health care system and resources to handle the increasing costs of management of HIV/AIDS and associated opportunistic infections. The objective of this study is to estimate direct and indirect costs of managing HIV/AIDS to both the health sector and the patients, at Murtala Muhammad Specialist Hospital, Kano (MMSH). Patients‘ data from a sample of 256 adults and 28 children were collected between 1st January and 31st December 2010. The study revealed that majority of the patients were aged between 15 and 49 (87.7%), female (66.2%) and married (71.48%), while about forty percent were unemployed (39.8%) and 27.1% had an income of less N20,000. The average annual income for the patients was estimated to be N143,796.

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Type: Project Materials| Format: Ms Word| Attribute: Documentation Only| Pages: 65 Pages| Chapters: 1-5 chapters

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PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES AND EVALUATION OF THE ANTITRYPANOSOMAL ACTIVITY OF VITEX SIMPLICIFOLIA OLIV. (VERBENACEAE) LEAF

This research project material is available: PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES AND EVALUATION OF THE ANTITRYPANOSOMAL ACTIVITY OF VITEX SIMPLICIFOLIA OLIV. (VERBENACEAE) LEAF.

However, two animals in the same group attained complete clearance with the same dose level. The drop in parastaemia level on administration of DCM and B fractions when compared with almost zero effect of the other three fractions confers activity on the two as shown in fig.11. The effects of extract/fraction on body weight of the treated animals showed that animals treated with 400, 200 mg/kg ME and 100 mg/kg, BF and DCMF of the plant extract on the average maintained their body weights post treatment while those treated with 100 mg/kg, WF, EF and HF showed reduced body weights. This ascribes antitrypanosomal activity on both BF and DCMF as shown in the graph (fig. 12). The animals in the negative control lost a lot of body weight and survived only for 30 days. The packed cell volume (PCV) analysis result was consistent with observations made on parasitaemia. Animals treated with 100-400 mg/kg ME was on the average above 43% which was within the reference values 42-52 for males. Those treated with 100 mg/kg DCMF was 42% while those treated with 100mg/kg, EF and WF fell below reference values. This again confers activity on DCM fraction. But generally, extract/fraction had no pronounced effect on PCV.

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Type: Project Materials| Format: Ms Word| Attribute: Documentation Only| Pages: 65 Pages| Chapters: 1-5 chapters

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