this chapter explains the different methods to be used in your research will
form this chapter. Here it mentions the procedures and strategies the writer
employed in the study such as research design, research area (area of the
study), population of the study, etc.
Design: this has to do with the structure of the research instrument to be used
in collecting data. It could be in sections depending on different variables
that forms the construct for the entire topic of the research problems. A
reliable instrument with a wrong research design will adversely affect the
reliability and generalization of the research. The choice of design suitable
for each research is determined by many factors among which are: kind of
research, research hypothesis, scope of the research, and the sensitive nature
of the research.
Area: this has to do with the geographical environment of the study area where
the places is located, the historical background when necessary and commercial
activities of that geographical area.
of the study: population is regarded in research work as the type of people and
the group of people under investigation. It has to be specific or specified.
Example: educational study teachers in lagos state. Once the population is
choosen, the next thing is to choose the samples from the population.
and sampling technique: it may not be possible to reach out the number of
people that form the entire population for the study to either interview,
observe or serve them with copies of questionnaire. To be realistic, the sample
should be up to 20% of the total population. Two sampling techniques are
popular among all the sampling techniques. These are random and stratified
random sampling techniques. (A). in Random Sampling, the writers select any
specific number from a place like school, village, etc. (B). In Stratified
Random Sampling, one has to indicate a specific number from a stratum which
could be a group of people according to age, qualification, etc. or different
group from different location and different consideration attached.
this is a device or different devices used in collecting data. Example:
interview, questionnaire, check list, etc. instrument is prepared in sets or
subsections, each set should be an entity thus asking questions about a
particular variable to be tested after collecting data. The type of instrument
used will determine the responses expected. All questions should be well set so
as to determine the reliability of the instrument.
and reliability of the instruments: this has to do with different measures in
order to determine the validity and reliability of the research instrument. For
example presenting the drafted questionnaire to the supervisor for scrutiny.
Giving the questionnaire to the supervisor for useful comments and corrections
would help to validate the instrument.
of the instruments: here, the writer states whether he/ she administer the test
personally or through assistant. He also indicates the rate of return of the
copies of the questionnaire administered.
the instruments: here items on the questionnaire or any other device used must
be assign numerical values. For example: 4 points to strongly agree, 3 points
to agree, 2 points to disagree and 1 point to strongly disagree.
Methods of data analysis: Expert has
recommended so many methods of testing and analyzing data such as: Pearson’s
product moment correlation (PPMC), Spearman’s rank- Different correlation (SR),
Related T-test, Chi-square and the contingency co-efficient, factorial design
[n/b: when the population is large, we use PPMC and when the population is
small, we use SR], Path Analysis, Independent T- Test, etc.
Method of getting data: Methods used to
gather data include: questionnaire, observation, recording procedure, etc.