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1.     Introduction: this chapter explains the different methods to be used in your research will form this chapter. Here it mentions the procedures and strategies the writer employed in the study such as research design, research area (area of the study), population of the study, etc.

2.     Research Design: this has to do with the structure of the research instrument to be used in collecting data. It could be in sections depending on different variables that forms the construct for the entire topic of the research problems. A reliable instrument with a wrong research design will adversely affect the reliability and generalization of the research. The choice of design suitable for each research is determined by many factors among which are: kind of research, research hypothesis, scope of the research, and the sensitive nature of the research.

3.     Research Area: this has to do with the geographical environment of the study area where the places is located, the historical background when necessary and commercial activities of that geographical area.

4.     Population of the study: population is regarded in research work as the type of people and the group of people under investigation. It has to be specific or specified. Example: educational study teachers in lagos state. Once the population is choosen, the next thing is to choose the samples from the population.

5.     Sample and sampling technique: it may not be possible to reach out the number of people that form the entire population for the study to either interview, observe or serve them with copies of questionnaire. To be realistic, the sample should be up to 20% of the total population. Two sampling techniques are popular among all the sampling techniques. These are random and stratified random sampling techniques. (A). in Random Sampling, the writers select any specific number from a place like school, village, etc. (B). In Stratified Random Sampling, one has to indicate a specific number from a stratum which could be a group of people according to age, qualification, etc. or different group from different location and different consideration attached.

6.     Instrumentation: this is a device or different devices used in collecting data. Example: interview, questionnaire, check list, etc. instrument is prepared in sets or subsections, each set should be an entity thus asking questions about a particular variable to be tested after collecting data. The type of instrument used will determine the responses expected. All questions should be well set so as to determine the reliability of the instrument.

7.     Validity and reliability of the instruments: this has to do with different measures in order to determine the validity and reliability of the research instrument. For example presenting the drafted questionnaire to the supervisor for scrutiny. Giving the questionnaire to the supervisor for useful comments and corrections would help to validate the instrument.

8.     Administration of the instruments: here, the writer states whether he/ she administer the test personally or through assistant. He also indicates the rate of return of the copies of the questionnaire administered.

9.     Scoring the instruments: here items on the questionnaire or any other device used must be assign numerical values. For example: 4 points to strongly agree, 3 points to agree, 2 points to disagree and 1 point to strongly disagree.

Table of Analysis






















10.                        Methods of data analysis: Expert has recommended so many methods of testing and analyzing data such as: Pearson’s product moment correlation (PPMC), Spearman’s rank- Different correlation (SR), Related T-test, Chi-square and the contingency co-efficient, factorial design [n/b: when the population is large, we use PPMC and when the population is small, we use SR], Path Analysis, Independent T- Test, etc.

11.                        Method of getting data: Methods used to gather data include: questionnaire, observation, recording procedure, etc.


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