is through the family that the child comes to make the very important
identifications with social class, religion and ethnic group culture. Indeed
the family influences the child’s self perception.
Orhungur (2017), asserts that the family
continues to exercises a strong influence on a person throughout his life. In
Nigeria for instance, the family is the most significant group to which one is
attached for his / her whole life. He adds that, the child’s success or failure
in life often has their roots in the family, whether be it nuclear or extended
family. In Nigeria, we believe very much in the extended family and the
extended family is very much involved in the training or generally upbringing
of the child.
Eyake (2017) quoted hammelwelt who argued
that educational aspiration is influenced by the family size. According to his
findings, boys from small family size had better chance of gaining admission
into grammar school than boys from larger families. Eyake (2017), shared the
words of Thomson that family size affects the educational upbringing of the
child. Adding that children from small families are more likely to adopt adult
values and attitudes than those from large families, parents with fewer children
tend to expect more from each child than to parents with many children. From
the above, it may conclude that there is a correlation between family size and
educational upbringing or performance. If the size of the family of the family
is small, it is easier to control such a family and to manage the available
resources. It may also be easier to pay close attention to each member of the
family than the case with larger family size.
A student educational outcome and
academic success is greatly influenced by the type of school that they attend.
School factors includes school structure, composition and school climate. The
school one attends is the institutional environment that sets the parameters of
a students’ learning experience. Depending on the environment a school can
either open or close the door that leads to academic achievements. Crosnoe,
Johnson and Elder (2021) suggested that school sector (public or private) and
class size are two important structural components of schools. Private school
tends to have better finding and smaller class size than public school (Crosnoe
et al 2021). The additional funding of private schools lead to better academic
performance and more access to resources such as computers which have shown to
enhance academic achievement (Crosnoe et al 2021, Eamon 2021). The relative
social class of a student body also affects academic performance (Eamon, 2021).
Students from low socio-economic background who attend poorly funded schools do not perform as well as students
from higher social classes (Eamon, 2021).
Portes and Macleod (2017) carried out a
similar research and found out that socio-economic variables continues to
influence educational attainment even after conducting for different school
types, the school context tends to affect the strength of the relationship
between socio-economic status and educational outcomes.
Buckingham (2020) was of the opinion
that students from independent private schools are likely to achieve higher
ends of school scores. While school related factors are important, there is
again an indirect link to socio-economic status as private schools are more
likely to have more students from high socio-economic status families, selected
students with stronger academic abilities and have great financial resources.
(2019) in his contribution stated that the school effect is also likely to
operate through variation in the quality and attitudes of teachers.
(2018) was of the opinion that reaches at disadvantaged school for instance
always does their job reluctantly and thereby compound low expectation of their
students. Also related to poor performance is the level of truancy tends to be
higher among students from low socio-economic background. Truancy even
occasionally is associated with the poorer academic performance at school
from non metropolitan areas are more likely to have lower educational outcomes
in terms of academic performance and retention rates than those students from
metropolitan areas (Cheers 2020). In essence, issues affecting education in
regional areas includes cost, the availability of transport and level of family
Peer group are important socialization
agent. Participation in peer group activities is a primary stage development
and adolescents’ identities are often closely associated with that of their
peers (Santor et al (2020). Because peer groups area key point of the
developmental process they can have a negaEkweree effect on young people due to
peer pressure and peer conformity. Higher degrees of peer pressure, which is
the pressure from others to participate in certain activities and peer
conformity which is the degree to which and individual adopts actions that are
sanctioned by their peer group have. Shown to increase the likely hood o risk
taking behaviors’ such as substance abuse, and sexual acEkwereity (Santor et
al, 2017). These risk-taking behaviors indirectly affect school performance in
a negaEkweree way (Santor et al, 2017)
Family background is key to a students’
life and outside of school is the most important influence on students learning
and includes factors such as socio-economic status of the home, sale parents,
household, divorce, paventing, practices, aspiration and material characteristics’,
family size and neighborhood (Majoribank 2017).
The environment at home is a primary
socialization agent and influences a child’s interest in school and aspiration
for the future.
The socio-economic status of a child is
most commonly determined by combining parents educational level, occupational
status and income level (Jeynas 2017) studies have repeatedly found that
socio-economic status affects students outcomes (Bharudin and Luster 2018,
Jeynas 2017, Eamon 2021, Hochs child 2017 Mcneal 2021, Seafried 2018). Students
who have low socio-economic status earn lower test scores and are more likely
to drop out of school. Eamon 2021, Hochschild 2017). It is believed that low
socio-economic status negaEkwereely affects academic performance because low
socio-economic status prevent access to vital resources and creates additional
stress at home (Eamon 2021, Majoribanks 2017, Jeynes 2017).
Nwarike (2021) stated that because of
poor socio-economic background of some families, their children prefer to drop
out of school to become apprentices in the jobs they are not talented just to
enable them earn a living. With these it is clear that the home has a lot not
only on academy but also on the social economic and political life of that
(2017) stated that generally children’s academic performance relates to their
parents socio-economic status as measured inform of income, occupation and
house hold possessions. To copel, the income and occupation of the parents has
a relationship to the academic performance of their children. As occupation is
based on educational attainment of the parents, it therefore entails that the
educated parents holds better occupations in the society. According to him the
household possession like radio, television, computer, telephone, well stuffed
home libraries e.t.c, boost the child’s academic performance.
Previous research has shown that
children from single parents’ households do not perform well in school as
children from two parent households Majoribanks 2017). There is several
explanation responsible for this achievement gap like less income, lack of
support which increases stress and conflict Majoribanks 2017). Lack of qualitaEkweree
time with their children (Rich 2017). This reduces supervision of school work
and maintaining appropriate level of discipline. Spackles (2019) argued that is
more detrimental when children is sole families also experience a range of
other risk factors such as low income.
Divorce has also been found to negaEkwereely
affect academic performance (Jeynes 2017). William (Jeynes 2017) found that
students whose parents had divorced were among those who scored lowest on
standardized test. Possible explanations for this relationship are that divorce
can cause a family’s socio-economic status level to decrease and parental
connections harmed (Jeynes 2017, Majoribanks 2017). Students from broken homes
are often moshed by wrong peer group association, mental imbalance, exposed to
risk, and they don’t have self esteem.
Research shows that supporEkweree and
attenEkweree parenting practices positively affect academic performance (Eamon,
2021). The effect of parental involvement their children’s school has an
academic performance is less clear (Domina 2021). Parental involvement in their
school has been linked to both posiEkweree and negaEkweree influences on
academic performances (Domina. 2021, Mcneal 2021). Explanations for this
discrepancy are not conclusive.
High parents’ aspirations have been
associated with increasing students’ interest in education (Majoribanks 2021).
In most poor homes, where the parents are uneducated, their aspirations are
normally not always in line with what the school up holds. It is unarguable
that sum uneducated parents send their children to school just because people
are sending their children to school while the educated parent know the reason
and the value of education in the life of their children. Thus they know how to
go about making them what they want them to be in future.
Good and Brophy 2018 P.485). In their
contribution on the issue of parents educational attainment and occupation as
it affects the child’s academic performance state that parents who are well
educated value education and expects their children to be well educated perhaps
better than themselves. Educated parents aspire the peak for their children
Materials characteristics are another
key factor that affects academic performance Baharudin and Luster 2018, Eamon 2021,
Majoribanks 2017). Mother’s who are more educated and have high self esteem
children higher test scores (Baharudin and Luster 2018, Eamon 2021). Also
mothers who delay child bearing have been shown to provide move “cogniEkwereely
stimulating” and supporEkweree environment at home which has a posiEkweree
effect on school performance (Eamon 2021).
Smaller family size has been linked with
higher academic performance or achievement (Eanon 2021, Majoribanks 2017).
Students with fewer siblings are likely to receive more parental attention and
have more access to resources than children form large families. The additional
attention and support leads to better school performance.
2.3 Empirical Studies
further explain how the influences of parents on the academic performance of
their children, some researchers have mentioned some contributing forces that
explain the differences in performance of students in the following ways:
Jennifer (2021), in her study on the effects of socioeconomic status on
students’ academic achievements in Asia. The researcher used four hypotheses
for the study. Composite test scores of tenth grade students from the
Educational Longitudinal of 2017 were examined using a four part model which
includes a total of 180 students’ role performance, school, and family and peer
factors. Ordinary least Squares analysis indicates that the strongest predictor
of student test scores in socioeconomic status, resulting in a statistically
significant increase in the standardized coefficient of 0.224 points. These
results support previous research and possible directions for public policy
Ogunshola Femi and Adewale A, M (2018),
who conducted statistical analysis on the relationship between home-based
environment factors and the academic performance of students in selected
secondary schools within a local government area in Kwara State was
investigated. Samples were obtained with one hundred and eighty (180) students
randomly selected from three secondary school. Diverse statistical tests were
performed on the various data collected to establish statistical significance of
the effects on students’ academic performance. Parental Socio-economic statuses
and parental educational background did not have significance effect on the
academic performance of the students. The two variables that indicated
significant influence do reflect nature of the students’ home environment and
played notable role in the academic achievement of the respondents. The
recommendations made were that government could intervene to raise level of
academic achievement among students in rural area.
Akahomen, Dora, O, Emuhi, Justina O and
Igun Sylvester Nosakhare, (2018), in a study conducted in their quest on the
effects of Socio-economic background of parents on students’ academic
performance in English Language. It is within this milieu that this study
examines Socio-economic factors influencing students’ academic performance in
Nigeria, with some explanations’ from Igueben local government area of Edo
State. Senior secondary school year English promotion result was used. The
population of the study was the entire secondary schools. A total population of
54 copies of questionnaire was administered to respondents. The study revealed
that insufficient parental income, family type and lack of funding by
government are factors influencing students’ academic performance. Based on
these findings, certain recommendations were made towards improving students’
academic performance, prominent of these include proper funding of education by
government, sensitization of parents towards their children education and the
support of NGO’s to eradicate poverty.
Olufemi Adewuyi (2019), carried out
another study to examined family background and students’ academic performance
in Lagos State secondary schools. The sample of the study consists of 280
students from ten randomly selected schools in Ikeja/Isolo /Osodi local
government Area of Lagos State. This comprised 160 males and 120 females. A
student questionnaire on Family background on students Academic Performance
(FBOSAP) of 28 items divided into two sections which was developed by the
researcher was used for the study. Five hypotheses were formulated for the
study. The findings of this study confirmed the first four hypotheses while the
fifth hypothesis was rejected because the findings did not confirm it. The data
were analyzed on the basis of percentages and t-test. Although since all the
hypotheses tested on family background and students academic performance;
implications for counseling yielded a posiEkweree result, the following
recommendations were made. That a larger sample that will cover both rural and
urban areas should be used for further investigation.
Mohammed Umaru, Mohammed L . Maina and
Sule Amed Askira (2020), in their survey to investigate factors responsible for
students’ dropout in Borno State secondary schools. Seven (7) research
questions were formulated to guide the research. The subjects used for the
study consist of one hundred (100) respondents. Random sampling techniques were
used. The instruments used during this study were the questionnaire and past
records, simple percentage score was used to analyze the data collected. Based
on the analysis, the following findings revealed that home background factors,
personality of the child and school environment were responsible for the dropout
syndrome. On the basis of the findings the researcher recommended among others
that subject specialist teachers, administrators and all those responsible for
the curriculum at secondary school level should ensure that the curriculum
contents are accurately presented and systematically taught to ensure easier
assimilation of knowledge and intellectual trauma.
the review of literature, ii is apparent that family background and educational
performance of students’ have been seen from different perspecEkwerees. From
socio-economic status of parents, it has been seen students from poorer
background have worse educational attainments than parents who are well
educated themselves generally value education and expect and desire students to
become well educated perhaps better than themselves. Children of educated
parents are naturally more intelligent than those of uniformed parents.
Occupationally, parents who are unskilled workers take little interest in their
children’s school work, have large families and infact lacks all that needed
for child’s educational performances. Home situations, such as broken homes,
malnutrition, and ideal environment e.t.c have far-reaching effects which tend
to influence educational performance. It is also noted that family size has
grossly effect on child’s educational performance. The larger the size of the
family, the lower the child’s educational abilities. This is true because the
larger, the greater the responsibility.
is interesting that so much effort had earlier been done in other places, to
investigate the effect of family background on the child’s educational
From the empirical review of the family
background on students’ educational performance in school. It was understood
that studies earlier carried out support the fact that family background has an
adverse effect on the educational performance of students’ particularly when
the background in a family is negaEkweree.
This review will therefore encourage the
researcher’s interest in the topic especially as it has provided working tools
for the work. The review would therefore; serve as moEkwereation and guide to
the researcher’s attempt in finding out the effect of the family background in
the child’s educational performance particularly it affects our own local
chapter deals with the research design, area of study, population, sample and
samplings instrumentation, validation of instruments, method of data collection
as well as method data analysis.
research design adopted for this study was the survey method. According to
Kerhinger in Agbe (2019) defines a research design as the planed structure and
strategy of investigating conceived so as to obtain answers to research
questions and control of variances are the basic tasks of a research design.
Survey design required that data are
typically collected through questionnaires, interview or observation of a
particular time, from a sample for the purpose of describing the population
represented by the sample of that particular point in time.
Thus, the researcher used the survey
design to ascertain whether the selected variables have any significant
relationship on educational performance on students. By using this design, the
researcher will sample from the population that can allow inferences from
generalization to the total population.
area this research work was conducted in Abua, Abua/Odual Local Government Area.
The study was on the effects of family background as it affects students’
performance in . Abua, Abua/Odual Local Government Area was created on the 13th
of February 1976 from the former River Abia state and Akwa Ibom which had been
part of Kwara state.
The local government comprises of five
districts. Namely: Mbayion, Mbatiav, Mbatierev, Yandev and Ipav with Abua town
as the head quarters. Its geographical location is approximately latitude 7▫,
15▫ North and longitude 9▫ 00 East. The local government shares boundaries with
four other local government areas. Tarka in the north, Buruku in the east,
Ushongu in the south and Gwer in the West. It has an area of about 32.27km
(source, dept of land and survey , Abua).
The Local Government is occupied mostly
by the Ekwere speaking people with a handful of immigrants from different
ethnic groups. The people of the area are predominantly farmers with rich
agricultural land which produce both annual crops as well as perennial crops respectively.
Peasant farmers are also involved in small scale animals rearing such as
poultry, goats, cattle and sheep. In Abua metropolitan, many of the inhabitants
are civil servants while a greater number of them are traders. The local
government area has a total number of 42 governments. Approved secondary
schools most of who is science oriented and offer as a science subject.
study population of the local government comprise of 42 secondary schools with
a total number of 1,600 SSI students.
Hence, the study population involved senior secondary schools (SSI) students
from five selected schools in the area. A total of 80 students were drawn from
the list of the five schools, with 16 students from each school. The selected
schools were chosen on the basis of their location (urban or rural), mixed or
single sexed and whether they are boarding or day schools.
1.7 Sample and Sampling
selection was done by stratified random sampling technique. First, the list of
(SSI) students from the respecEkweree schools were obtained, and thereafter,
numbers were assigned to the names. The required numbers of 16 students per
school was then drawn from the list of each of the five schools. From these the
required number of 80 students was obtained accordingly. This approach gave
every student an equal opportunity of being used in the study.
For the administration of test, out of
the 80 students that filled the questionnaires, twenty questionnaires were
selected from one school and used. They were divided into two groups on the
basis of their parental background whether educated or wealthy or not wealthy.
The schools selected for this work are listed below.
Government Secondary School Abua
Bristow Secondary School Abua
Abua High School Abua.
St. John’s Day Secondary School Abua
Federal Government Girls’ College Abua
the purpose of this study, a research-questionaire was developed and used to
obtain necessary information for the research work. Based on the number of
questionnaire administered, the researcher collected the students’ last term
results from their respecEkweree schools. The results collected was used to
judge the students’ performance based on their family background.
In addition, the researcher administered
a test to some of the students being sampled to further strengthen the results
from the schools. The questionnaire administered contained two parts that is
part “A” which gave information about the students’ family background. And part
“B” which also gave some information on how parents relate with children at
home and their effect.
3.7 Validation of Instruments
The instruments were constructed by the
researcher and given to the supervisor of this project work and two other
experts in science education for validation. This was to ensure the validity of
the instruments as the removal of certain ambiguity that characterized the