This research work is aimed at An Evaluation
of cost Reduction Techniques in Achieving Profitability in an Inflated Economy
with particular reference to Nigerian Breweries plc, this work examined the
following: To find out how effective, the resources of Nigerian Breweries PLC
are being utilized to improve profitability. To know if cost reduction schemes
are being applied in the industry. To find out the specific strategies adopted,
the level of application and the specific areas where they are being
administered their evaluation. To ascertain whether there is systematized cost
reduction schemes/programme under the personnel and or accounting department.
An Evaluation of cost Reduction Techniques in Achieving Profitability in an
Inflated Economy. These are the areas that the researcher concentrated on while
carrying out this research work. The first chapter is the introductory part of
the research work. This chapter also contains the background of the study,
statement of problems, research Question etc. Data for the study was sourced
from two main sources which include Primary and Secondary sources of data collection.
Primary data: Questionnaires and oral interviews were used to collect
information from the respondents. Secondary data: Journals, magazines and other
relevant materials relating to the area of my investigation will be reviewed.
An extensive literature review was carried out on direct literature and
indirect literature on books, journals and past works. The research instrument
used in this study includes oral interviews and questionnaires. The
questionnaire is structured to contain both close and open-ended questions.
Simple tables, pie charts and percentages were used in the treatment of data
while chi-square was used in the research work. Based on the findings,
conclusions were drawn and recommendations were also made in the last chapter
of this work which is the fifth chapter.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page i
Approval page iii
Table of content ix
1.1 Background of Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problems 5
1.3 Objectives f the Study 8
1.4 Significance of Study 9
1.5 Scope and Limitation of Study 11
1.6 Operational Definition of Terms 17
2.0 Review of Related Literature 20
2.1 Cost 21
2.2 Concept and Definition of Cost Reduction
2.3 Inflation and Profitability 24
2.4 Difference Between Cost Reduction and
2.5 The Production Department 34
2.5.1 The Purchasing Department 39
2.5.2 The Sales Department 40
2.5.3 Personnel and Administration Department
2.6 The Planning Reduction 44
2.7 Cost Reduction Analysis 48
2.8 Cost Reduction Techniques 51
2.9 Break-Even Analysis 51
2.9.1 ABC Analysis 63
2.10 Absenteeism Control 64
2.11 Factors that Influence Profitability 66
2.12 Role of Profit in Business 67
3.1 Populations Collection 71
3.2 Test of Hypothesis 75
3.3 Analysis of Questionnaire 78
3.4 Method of Data Collection 82
3.5 Primary Data 85
3.6 Secondary Data 85
Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of
Summary of Findings, Conclusion, and
5.1 Summary of Findings 99
5.2 Conclusion 102
5.3 Recommendations 104
For a business to succeed, knowledge of
certain management, techniques is ver necessary.
Mastering the techniques that can help one to
achieve the basic objectives of building up a business and making it
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
All production aims to satisfy peoples wants,
however in carrying out this production, certain costs are incurred to achieve
the stated organisational objective be it to satisfy peoples wants according to
Hanson J. L to maximize profit. For any business to achieve its set objective
there have to be adequate, strong and effective cost reduction measures (formal
or informal) that should be adopted.
The effectiveness of these measures however
may have heaped some of these companies to remain in business irrespective of
the hash condition like inflation among others.
Many Nigerian business establishments
presently, especially the manufacturing sectors are in a serious profit
squeeze. Several factors account for this into ward condition which includes,
the increasing cost of running a business in Nigeria, drastic fall in the
Nigerian foreign exchange market did not help matters. The situation is further
aggravated by triple-digit inflation present in our (Nigeria) economy. The
structural adjustment programme, ban on importation of certain basic raw
materials, payment of long excise duties have caused some companies either to
have closed indefinitely or produced at a high cost, thereby making even the
local goods high and sale volume low.
All have resulted in poor profit margin
payout, retrenchment, compulsory leave and retirement with or without benefit which
invariably affects the company as well.
Firms, therefore, are struggling to maintain
satisfactory pay-off where costs are used and o price increase becoming more
and difficult to sustain. To maintain earnings in the face of these conditions,
there is the need for these companies to decide about cost maintenance culture,
increase productivity to enhance profitability and diversification into a
completely new market area.
In addition to these, it will enhance the
competitive ability and generate a reasonable profit margin for survival,
growth and expansion of the business.
It is the view that most industries do not
have approved they exist, are not well organized.
This analysis, therefore, is designed to
explore the various strategies and evaluate them and is well open to
manufacturing firms in reduction system can go a long way at improving
profitability and overcoming inflation.
It is appropriate therefore to say that the
identification of these problems of some industries and the solution to them
will not only improve the profitability of its operations but also helps
largely towards the improvement of the Nigerian economy.
This work, therefore, is assumed to be of
some benefits to manufacturing firms and help them improve further than returns
on investment and improve the Nigerian economy generally.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The firms are in business to make a profit.
It does this by producing and selling some commodities.
Essentially, every activity whether
productive or not consumes resources. According to Lipsey (2009) “there are
insufficient productive resources in the world to produce the number of goods
and services that would be required to satisfy every one want”. The scarcity of
these productive resources eg (human and material) made it imperative that
there should be a product and judicious use of them.
Most firms in Nigeria are faced with rising
costs of production and low contribution margin.
Small firms, in particular, have peculiar
problems and are easily swept off their feet by conditions that other companies
Factors that can disrupt the profitability of
Nigerian Breweries Plc in this economy of hyperinflation includes:
I Inadequate capital structure
ii Inadequate to enjoy economies of purchase
iii Tiny market sharer losing their market
iv Higher cost of research and development.
Having considered the above factors, certain
questions needed to be answered include:
1. Is there any possible means of installing
a cost reduction system to eliminate the avoidable cost and or waste and
enhance Nigeria Breweries Plc’s profitability.
2. Do this firm have any cost reduction
scheme or programme and if present, how effective and efficient are they? Are
they producing the desired result?
3. Can the cost per unit of production of a
given product be realized without affecting h quality and usefulness of the
4. Are the firm resources being fully
utilized or are some of them lying idle and thus going to waste.
5. How, out of the various alternatives do we
employ our limited resources to produce these assortments as efficiently as possible.
6. In a manufacturing setup, what specific
area requires a reduction in cost and what level of cost reduction is required
in a given cost level.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
Having identified these problems above, and
the operational environment surrounding the company, which the researcher is
aimed at solving, the following is what this study is aimed at achieving:
– To find out how effective, the resources of
Nigerian Breweries PLC are being utilized to improve profitability.
– To know if cost reduction schemes are being
applied in the industry.
– To find out the specific strategies
adopted, the level of application and the specific areas where they are being
administered their evaluation.
– To ascertain whether there is a
systematized cost reduction scheme/programme under the personnel and or
– To know if certain specific cost reduction
techniques applied in one industry will still achieve some result elsewhere.
– To offer suggestions on the specific cost
reduction techniques to the company under review as well as assist where firms
including the low ones.