This study investigated the effect of dictation technique on the
achievement on students in English listening comprehension in Abakaliki
Education Zone of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Five research questions and five null
– hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The study design was quasi –
experimental. The sample for the study consisted 182 JSS2 students from two co
– education schools in Abakaliki Education Zone. The experimental group
comprised 100 male and female students from schools in rural and urban areas.
The control group comprised 82 male and female students from schools located in
rural and urban areas. A multi – stage random sampling technique was used.
First to draw the two co – educational schools and two intact classes from each
of the schools, and to assign schools to experimental and control groups. Both
the experimental group and control group were given the same English listening
passage but the difference is that while those in the experimental group were
taught English listening comprehension with dictation technique, those in the
control group were taught English listening comprehension using the lecture
method. The instrument used for data collection was English Achievement Test
(EAT) which was marked over fifty. The EAT was validated by three experts. The
instrument was trial tested on twenty students from Afikpo Education Zone,
Ebonyi State. The data obtained from the trial tests were used to calculate the
reliability of the instrument using Kuder – Richardson’s formula. It yielded an
index of 0.74. Mean was used to answer the research questions while ANCOVA was
used to test the hypotheses as P < 0.05. From the results the experimental
group had significant higher achievement score in English listening
comprehension than their counterparts who are in the control group. Also,
gender had a significant effect on the achievement of students in English
listening comprehension but school location did not. In addition, interaction
effect between treatment and gender was not significant as well as the
treatment and school location was not significant. Based on the findings, it
was recommended that English language teachers should adopt dictation technique
in teaching English listening comprehension. Different tasks which can aid
extensive English listening comprehension activities should be employed from
primary schools to junior secondary school being the foundational classes. The
curriculum planners should also include the use of dictation technique in the
next review of curriculum.
Background of the Study
In recent time, English has been rated as the world most popular language which
is characterized by active communication especially the indigenous owners of
the language (Abolade, 2004). English is the most popular language which is
widely used in international commerce, industry, communication and a source of
scientific and technological advancement. English language has played a major
role in Nigeria. English language was voluntarily adopted for official and
inter-ethnic communication in the country (Akabogu, 2002). English language
since then has come to serve various vital functions in the life of the nation.
Of all these functions however, its role as the language of education is
paramount since education gives life and essence to all other sphere of human
endeavour (Obanya, 2002). This function is given greater vigour as a result of
the position given to it by the National Policy on Education (2004) which makes
English language mandatory in secondary and tertiary education in Nigeria. It
is also the language of evaluation in schools as it is used for assessing
students after primary school for the First School Leaving Certificate; Junior
Secondary School Certificates Examinations and Senior Secondary School
Certificate Examinations (SSCE), Joint Admission and Matriculation Board (JAMB)
and other Professional Examinations.
English language is a school subject and like every other school subject
requires formal instruction. Instruction in English language involves
instruction on the four basic language skills; listening, speaking, reading and
writing. This is because acquiring a new language necessarily involves
developing these four modalities in varying degrees and combinations.
(Tankersly, 2003). Tankersly also explains that these four skills include
associated skills, such as knowledge of vocabulary, spelling, pronunciation,
syntax, meaning and usage.
As a result of the importance of English language in Nigeria,
the Federal Government (FRN: 2004: 16) in its National Policy on Education
The medium of instruction in the primary school shall be the
language of the immediate environment for the first three years. During this
period, English shall be taught as a subject. From the fourth year, English
shall progressively be used as a medium of instruction
The desire of the Federal Government of Nigeria, according to
this statement, is to enable students attain some level of proficiency in
English to enable them to fully participate in the educational, social,
economic, and political aspects of the Nigerian society. Given the importance
of English language as a subject, common sense demands that students should
perform well in it but instead, the performance has been a downward trend. It
is expected that after learning the English language for so many years;
students would have reached a certain level of proficiency but it is not so.
Marjah (2008), reports that the performance of students in written, reading and
spoken English is not encouraging. Consequently, the Chief Examiners Report
(WAEC, 2013) reiterated that English language paper was generally within the
experience of the candidates, and that the paper compared favourably with those
set in previous years. However, according to the report, the candidates’
performance was generally disappointing especially in the areas of expression
and mechanical accuracy. In the comprehension section which is relevant to this
work, the Chief Examiners reported that the candidates copied out chunks from the
passages, indicating their lack of understanding, failure to identify main
ideas in a given passage, inadequate skill in making adequate inference as well
as limited knowledge of vocabulary. In the area which required the candidates
to replace words, they failed to put their options back into the context of the
passage to see if the options chosen fitted well. Thus, they lost a lot of
marks. For these reasons, proper attention should be given to the teaching and
learning of listening comprehension in the English Language.
Listening is a basic and important skill in learning a language.
For acquisition of a language, listening plays a pivotal role. Listening is a
complex process used to make sense out of what is heard. It involves focusing
one’s attention on a particular sound stimulus and trying to understand what is
being said (Mayers and Mayers, 2000). Listening also involves the process of
selecting, attending to, understanding, remembering and responding to sounds
and messages (Morky, 2000). Offorma (2004), defines listening as an active
skill of paying attention and understanding which involves the aural process of
coding information heard in the long term memory after processing it in the
sensory memory and the short term memory. It is an active skill that requires
the learners’ attention.
Listening appears to be one of the easiest ways to learn, yet,
it is one of the difficult skills to acquire. Listening is a complex, active
process of hearing, comprehension and interpretations in which the interlocutors
match what they hear with what they already know (Goh, 2000). Rost (2002: 18),
defines listening in its broadest sense as “a process of receiving what the
speaker actually says (receptive orientation); constructing and representing
meaning (constructive orientation); negotiating meaning with the speaker and
responding (collaborative orientation); and creating meaning through
involvement, imagination and empathy (transformative orientation)”. In
classroom teaching and learning, listening is important to get information,
obtain direction from the teacher and take down notes while the lesson is going
on. Ifionu and Ohuche (2000) summarized the importance of listening by stating
that one listens for the main ideas, to make predictions, for signal words or informal
key words, to recognize digressions and for chronological order. Listening
involves the ability to comprehend what is heard. Comprehension is an ability
to understand the meaning of something. Long (2012) points out that
comprehension plays an important role in the process of second language
acquisition, in storage and retrieval of linguistic input, and the development
of learner’s second language. Active listening involves comprehension.
Listening comprehension is a complex process, crucial in the development of
second language competence. It is the ability to understand what is spoken and
to derive meaning out of it. O’Malley, Chamot and Kupper (2008), view listening
comprehension as an active process in which individuals focus on selected
aspects of aural input, construct meaning from passages, and relate what they
hear to existing knowledge.
Listening has an important place in learning as it is one of the
four major skills in language acquisition. Even though the other skills such as
reading, speaking and writing are essential to develop language proficiency,
listening contributes primarily for language expertise. Listening awakens
awareness of the language as it is a receptive skill that first develops in a
human being. Learning to listen to the target language improves language
ability. The sound, rhythm, intonation, and stress of the language can only be
perfectly adapted through listening. To understand the nuances in a particular
language, one must be able to listen. As we get to understand spoken language
by listening, it is easier to improve the other skills and gain confidence
(Andrew, 2000) other than being the primary form of communication, listening
helps the language learner to understand the beauty of the language. In terms
of communicative language teaching, it is said that the basis for communicative
competence is listening as it provides the aural input and enables learners to
interact in spoken communication and hence language learning largely depends on
listening. Thus, listening forms the concrete basis for the complete language
proficiency (Colley, 2007).
Listening is the most significant part of communication as it is
pivotal in providing a substantial and meaningful response. Especially in
learning a language for communicative purpose, listening plays a vital role, as
it helps the language learner to acquire pronunciation, word stress, vocabulary
and syntax and the comprehension of messages conveyed can be based solely on
tone of voice, pitch and accent; and it is only possible when we listen.
Without understanding input appropriately, learning simply cannot get any
improvement. In addition, without listening skill, no communication can be
achieved (Chaudron, 2000). Also, every study conducted regarding the language
skills acquisition has proved that when we communicate, we gain 45% of language
competence from listening, 30% from speaking, 15% from reading and 10% from
writing. With the highest percentage of involvement in the exchange of
information in effective communication, listening has to be considered a
Listening, unlike the other language skills, is felt
comparatively much difficult by the learners, as it has all its interrelated
sub skills such as receiving, understanding, remembering, evaluating, and responding
(Anderson and Lyneh, 2000). But with the advent of dictation language –
teaching and the focus on proficiency, the learning and teaching of listening
started to receive more attention. However, listening is not yet fully
integrated into the curriculum and needs to be given more attention in a
language learning setting by making the teachers understand that merely
exposing the students to speaking skill is not sufficient for listening. Again,
listening is not an ability that could be developed without assistance. Also,
modern textbook writers should not be awfully clever in the way they slip
seamlessly from an interesting listening text into explanation and practice of
grammar. In classroom teaching and learning, English language teachers should
not be disinterested and scared in teaching the oral aspect of the English
language curriculum where the listening comprehension is embedded (Aina 2006).
Some, also should not see it as time wasting even though most of the sounds are
abstract. Many others also have developed negative attitude and transfered such
negative traits to their students and teach the sounds theoretically instead of
practically should be encouraged to do the teaching rightly. There is no place
for listening comprehension in the junior secondary external examinations,
again when students are required of listening skill in schools, most of them
find their training of listening far from enough.
Listening exercise should be dependent upon students’
skill in listening rather than skills of reading, speaking and writing. In
order to become competent L2 listener, it is necessary for learners to develop
abilities to segment the speech stream into meaningful chunks and recognize
aspects of connected speech. There are different tasks that the students can
perform without speaking, reading or writing (Goh. 2000). One is a transforming
exercise that involves receiving information in one form and transferring the
information or parts of it into another form. One of such examples is the use
of dictation task based exercise. Many jobs demand accurate understanding of
spoken orders (phone agents, dispatchers, administrative assistants etc).
Knowing how to take dictation is a skill with real world applications. There
should be a shift from preciously accepted listening pedagogy where teachers
teach listening passages as reading comprehension passages and where dictation
of those passages are seen as a mechanical drill and spelling checking
assessment and towards listening activities that aim to improve students;
bottom up processing and decoding skills. Again, students should be helped by
their teachers with better listening abilities or skills in classroom teaching
and learning situations with the use of different genres like drama, poem,
prose, magazines, textbooks excerpts e.t.c. and a number of dictation
activities to conduct their lessons.
Conversely, method of teaching English language refers to a way
of inculcating the knowledge of English language in the students. Ojukwu,
Mbaebie and Anyabolu (2005) see method of teaching English language as the
various ways, styles and techniques the English language teacher may apply in
impartation of knowledge of English to the students as to foster
internalization and understanding. Technique is any exercise, activity and task
in the classroom to meet the objectives or goals of learning. A technique is
implementation – that which actually takes place in a classroom. It is a
particular trick, stratagem, or contrivance used to accomplish an immediate
objective. Technique must be consistent with a method, and therefore in harmony
with an approach as well (Ozioko, 2003). No particular method of teaching is
the best. A skillful teacher uses as many methods and techniques because of the
fact that there is no single method that is regarded as the best for all
teaching situations (Mohammed, 1999). Very often, it becomes necessary to use
different methods of teaching to suit varying situations (Obanya, 2002).
However, the success in using these methods depends on the teacher’s
intelligent analysis of the educational purposes, the ability and nature of the
students in the class and the subject matter that will be treated (Mohammed,
There is a general belief that method chosen by English language
teachers to a large extent determines students’ achievement in the language.
Some researchers like Azikiwe (2005), holds the view that method of teaching is
indispensible in the teaching-learning process of English as a second language.
This view is reinforced by Bodunde (1999) that stresses that the teaching
method used by the English language teacher can affect student positively or
negatively because it is a weapon of enhancing the language ability of his/her
students. There are many teaching methods: these include lecture method, direct
method, communicative language teaching method etc. All these methods are
conventional teaching methods. They are methods that involve teacher in
complete verbal instruction or expression. Communication flows from teacher to
students (Anyima, 2011). In conventional teaching methods, students learn the
speech sounds like parrots. Students are expected to internalize the rules of
the target language through memorization (Azikiwe, 1998).
In the lecture method, lectures are delivered to students from notes,
with little discussion, so no serious effort is made to engage the bored minds
of the students. This usually leads to a situation whereby students complete
their courses or study but still lacking in a coherent body of knowledge or any
inkling to how one sort of knowledge relates to the other. The students may
likely graduate without knowing how to think logically, write clearly and speak
coherently. Panitz (2000), notes that the lecture method of teaching is
familiar, easy and requires no imagination. Perhaps this is why it is the
dominant method of teaching in Secondary Schools, Colleges and Universities.
Johnson, Johnson and Smith (1999), identified six specific pedagogical problems
with the lecture method of teaching. They include:
(i) Students’ attention to what the teacher is saying
decreases as the lecture proceeds. Students concentrate and assimilate
materials for 10-15 minutes, where upon their attention fall.
(ii) For a lecture to be effective, it takes an educated
intelligent person oriented toward an auditory learning style.
(iii) Lecture method tends to promote only lower- level learning
of factual information.
(iv) Lecture method is limited by an assumption that all
students need the same information presented orally at the same time and at the
same pace, without dialogue with the presenter/teacher in an impersonal way.
(v) Students tend not to like lecturing
(vi) Lecture method is based upon a series of assumptions about
the cognitive capabilities and strategies of students. It assumes that all
students learn auditory, have high working memory capacity, have all required
prior knowledge, have good note-taking strategies and skills and are not
susceptible to information processing overload. Perhaps, this is why Panitz
adds that aside from threats of obsolescence, pedagogically, learning is a
flawed approach to teaching and must be replaced by more effective teaching
In the conventional lecture method with the current problem of
large student populations and the delineating nature of learning in large
classrooms as well as a decline in students’ entry level, the students’ skills
in listening, speaking, reading and writing have shaken people’s confidence
(Marjah, 2008). The acquisition of listening skill is essential in language
learning. Students should be able to listen to enable them acquire the right
speech skills. Without adequate knowledge of speech skills students may have
difficulties in pronunciation, spelling and intonation. Adequate acquisition of
speech skills leads to fluency in speech and reading. Comprehension is
necessary in listening and when this skill is badly taught comprehension
suffers as a result of poor background in listening.
In contrast, another technique that may be used in teaching
listening comprehension is dictation technique. Dictation technique (DT) was
developed by Vandergrift a linguist at Cambridge University in 1975 (Blanche,
2004). Dictation technique is a writing activity that involves writing
down what someone says or reads out as it is being said or immediately after it
is said (Blanche, 2004). The use of dictation as a valuable language teaching
and learning technique has gone through a long history and has been used for
centuries all over the world. Dictation ensures attentive listening,
concentration and teaches students to write from dictation. It equally trains
students to distinguish sounds and helps them learn pronunciation and develop
aural comprehension (Blanche, 2004). Alkire (2002), summits that dictations
have long played a significant role in the English language curriculum in
Nigeria particularly in primary schools. It often acts as a memorization
exercise or spelling-check assessment. The situation is that pupils
particularly the less capable ones either work under stress or give up because
they perceive it as a boring and threatening lesson. They may gradually develop
a negative attitude towards dictation lessons and this tends to hinder their
Dictation should be treated as a teaching and learning exercise
in which pupils learn to improve their language learning rather than being a
mechanical drilling or assessing tool. Though it has been neglected for a long
time, second language teachers (L2) and in fact foreign language (FL) teachers
have to learn how to use only the parts of older methods that are relevant in
today’s context. Teachers can use different genres and a number of dictation
activities to conduct their lessons so as to change a boring, threatening and
stressful classroom atmosphere into a relaxing, supportive and enjoyable
learning environment which subsequently brings a positive influence on
learners’ performance. The major function of the language is giving feedback to
students on their performance, by which students work through their individual
errors. Dictation offers great opportunities for increasing accurate and fluent
command of the language through students analyzing their work. At the secondary
level of education in Nigeria, dictation is not given a place as part of
language teaching and learning activities unless where a teacher uses his or
her ingenuity. Teachers should be made to understand the vital contributions
dictation could play in a language classroom so as to employ it in instruction.
Using the dictation technique, the following step-by-step
procedure is adopted to facilitate listening comprehension.
Step I. Explanation: This
involves a brief introduction of what the lesson is all about.
Step II. Assigning to Groups: It
involves assigning members of the class to different groups depending on the
task(s) or role(s) they have to play.
Step III. Task(s) Assignment:
This involves assigning different tasks to each group. Teachers may prepare
short paragraph and dictate the sentences in disorder. Next, students check for
mistakes in pair work or group work. Later, they are told to put the sentences
in the correct order to form a paragraph.
Step IV. Execution of
Tasks(s): This involves each group planning on how to monitor, implement and
accomplish its task.
Step V. Articulation: Here,
groups make presentations depending on the tasks assigned to them. Others are
allowed to respond to each group’s presentation. The groups or individuals’ may
seek assistance on how to accomplish this presentation before the time. The
teacher provides necessary assistance as at when due.
Step VI. The teacher
summarizes the lesson, making sure that each important point in the
presentation is taken care of.
Step VII. Assessment: The
teacher gives the listening comprehension test to the students.
The reason for the use of dictation technique against the
lecture method in teaching listening comprehension is that dictation technique
is interactive, participatory, and exploratory and as such facilitates mastery
learning. Traditional methods encourage rote learning which is not learning in
actual sense. Despite the effect of teaching methods on students’ achievement
there seem to be other variables such as gender and school location that affect
Gender is a significant factor in the students’ academic achievement in both
senior secondary school subjects and junior secondary school subjects. Gender
according to Uzoegwu (2004) is varied socially and culturally constructed
roles, qualities and behaviour that are ascribed to men and women of different
societies. The researcher views gender as attributed roles, qualities or
features given to men and women of different sociological and cultural
entities. Gender in relation to achievement has been an issue of great interest
to researchers in education. The effect of gender on students’ achievement in
language has been an area of focus by researchers. However, no defined
consensus has been reached as there are divergent opinions on which gender
achieves better than the other in language studies. Some studies found gender
difference while some others came up with no difference. Umo (2001), found out
that girls perform better than boys, Uzoegwu (2004) and Anizoba (2004), found
out that boys performed better, while others like Oluikpe (2004) and Akabogu
(2002), found no gender difference. The issue of gender becomes necessary in
this present study since the schools to be used are co-educational. It is
necessary to see what effect gender will have on students achievement in
English listening comprehension.
Closely related to gender influence or students’ performance in English
listening comprehension is school location. School location in this context
refers to the geographical position of the school which can be urban or rural.
Differences in location imply existence of differences in demographic and
socio-economic parameters of the school (Ezema, 2002) and (Underwood, 2000). The
studies indicated that due to urban involvement, students in urban schools
perform better in second language learning than those in the rural schools. The
researcher views school location as a place where schools are situated whether
urban or rural. Studies have shown that school location has influence on
students’ achievement in many fields of study (Umo, 2001). Anizoba (2004) and
Umo (2001), observed that students in school located in the urban area perform
better in second language learning than those in schools located in the rural
area. While Yusuf and Adigun (2010), show that location had no influence on
students’ academic performance. The present study will either enforce or refute
the areas of controversy since there are inconsistent research reports with
respect to the influence of school location on achievement in some subject
Based on the previous studies, the effects of dictation technique, school
location and gender on students’ academic achievement seem to be inconsistent and
contradictory. This calls for continuous and further research on the effects of
dictation technique, gender and school location on students’ academic
achievement from time to time and place to place. Consequently, the aim of this
study is to find out the effectiveness or otherwise of dictation techniques,
school location and gender on students’ academic achievement in listening
comprehension in Junior Secondary Schools in Abakakiki Education Zone Area of
Statement of the Problem
There have been consistent reports of poor achievement in English language
among Nigerian students over the years. Also, results on students’ performance
in Senior Secondary Certificate Examination (SSCE) in English Language over the
years have not been commendable. Students’ academic achievement in listening
comprehension at Senior School Certificate Examination has been generally poor.
Failure in this subject area has often been attributed to the method and
techniques of teaching the listening skill which is the core of the school
curriculum. Another observation made is that the inability of the students to
listen very well has caused poor performance in their internal and external
examination respectively. In the May/June, 2013 Senior Certificate Examination,
the Chief Examiners reported that the examination was generally within the
learning experience of the candidates, and that the papers compared favourably
with previous years. However, candidates’ performance was generally poor.
According to this report, the wrong answers to the listening comprehension
questions indicated that the candidates did not understand the questions.
The lecture method of teaching with all its problems appears to be the
predominant method of teaching language skills in the secondary schools in
Abakaliki Education Zone of Ebonyi State. No matter the merits, there is no
method that is comprehensive and adequate enough to take care of all the
problems and demands of class room teaching process. Perhaps this is why the
level of both listening and written English of students’ area as well as their
achievement in the subject has not been satisfactory and encouraging. In order
to address this problem, the researcher wants to see how far dictation
technique can improve students’ achievement in listening comprehension.
Although the use of dictation technique has been tried in subjects like
government, social studies and chemistry yet, its effectiveness is yet to be
determined in the study of listening comprehension in Abakaliki Education Zone
Area of Ebonyi State. Also, no study to the best of the researcher’s knowledge
explored the effect of dictation technique on students’ achievement in
listening comprehension in Abakaliki Education Zone of Ebonyi State in
Purpose of the Study
The general purpose of this study is to determine the effect of
dictation on listening comprehension achievement of junior secondary school
students in English language listening skill. Specifically, the study is aimed
out the achievement of students taught listening comprehension using dictation
technique and those taught using lecture method.
the achievement of male and female students taught listening comprehension
using dictation technique and those taught using lecture method
the achievement of urban and rural students taught listening comprehension
using dictation technique and those taught using lecture method.
the interaction effect of dictation technique and gender on students’ achievement
in listening comprehension.
the interaction effect of dictation technique and location on students’
achievement in listening comprehension.
Significance of the Study
The theoretical significance of this study is anchored on
constructivist theory of language learning of (1978) by Vygotsky. The theory
explains the importance of active involvement of learners in constructing
knowledge for themselves. Constructivist learning, therefore, is a very
personal endeavour, whereby internalised concepts, rules, and general
principles may consequently be applied in a practical real – world context. If
the result of this work is established, it will help students to acquire the
ability to create their own knowledge in a classroom setting thereby supporting
social constructivist theory.
The findings of this study will be of immense benefit to the
following people: teachers, students, curriculum planners and Ministry of
Education. The result of the study will enable the English language teachers to
acquaint themselves with and use the dictation technique of teaching and
practice it in teaching and learning. This will make instrument delivery or
classroom activities to be learner centred and result oriented. Teaching
activities will be interesting to both teachers and students, thereby
facilitating English language teaching. For instance, the passage “The Nigerian
youth”, the students being able to identify intonation patterns for statement
questions and commands on a given passage and identify points of pauses in
different sentences, thereby enhancing their oral expression and writing in
teaching learning activities.
For students, it will help them work together with a short passage in order to
acquire pronunciation skill, sound discrimination, explain key words and
expressions, identify appropriate rhythms in poems, and passages listened to,
word stress and comprehension of spoken messages heard. It will create in the
learner the inherent ability to construct main ideas, supporting ideas, and be
able to summarize in short sentences and produce different speeches with
reference to consonants and vowel sounds in a given listening comprehension
passage. It will also boost the learner’s self-concept and self-esteem, because
the student has learned the use thereby motivating them intrinsically to learn
the language irrespective of their gender.
It is also expected that the findings of this study will help the curriculum planners
to design and integrate functional techniques in the English curriculum. It
will help them to integrate dictation as a technique of teaching English
The Ministry of Education can organize workshops and seminars on the best way
of teaching listening comprehension to make the English language teachers adapt
to its’ procedure. The technique will also be included in the curriculum used
for training teachers. When this work is published, the end users will locate
the findings of the study.
Scope of the Study
The study was carried out in secondary schools in Abakaliki
Education Zone of Ebonyi State. JSS II students were used for this study. JSSII
students are in their second year in junior secondary school and had experienced
various aspects of the traditional method of teaching. The study focused on the
variables like, effect of dictation on listening comprehension on gender and
location so as to find out and compare the achievement of male and female
students as well as urban and rural students taught listening comprehension
using dictation technique and lecture method.
The following research questions guided the study
1. What is
the mean achievement scores of students taught listening comprehension using
dictation technique and those taught using lecture method?
2. What is
the mean achievement score of male and female students taught listening
comprehension using dictation technique and those taught using lecture method?
3. What is
the mean achievement scores of urban and rural students taught listening
comprehension using dictation technique and those taught using lecture method?
4. What is
the interaction effect of dictation technique and gender on students mean
achievement scores in listening comprehension?
5. What is
the interaction effect of dictation technique and location on students mean
achievement scores in listening comprehension?
The following null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study
and were tested at 0.05 level of significant
1. There is
no significant difference in the mean achievement scores of students taught
listening comprehension using dictation technique and those taught using
is no significant difference in the mean achievement scores of male and female
students taught listening comprehension using dictation technique and those
taught using lecture method.
is no significant difference in the mean achievement scores of urban and rural
students taught listening comprehension using dictation technique and those
taught using lecture method
is no significant interaction effect of treatment and gender on the mean
achievement scores of students in listening comprehension.
is no significant effect of treatment and school location on the mean
achievement scores of students in listening comprehension.