The study was carried out to assess of the competencies of
Business studies teachers in the upper 9-year basic schools in Kwara State.
Four research questions and four null hypotheses guided the study. The study
employed survey research design. The population for the study was 1,201
Business studies teachers from which 361 teachers were randomly selected as
sample for the study. The instrument for data collection was questionnaire
titled Business Studies Teachers Competencies questionnaire (BSTCs).
Three experts validated the instrument. To obtain the reliability
coefficients of the questionnaire, 15 copies of the questionnaire were trial
tested on 15 Business studies teachers in Nsukka educational zone of Enugu
State, after which Cronbach alpha reliability method was used for data
analysis. A coefficient of 0.98 was obtained. Mean and standard deviation
were used to answer the research questions while t-test statistics and Analysis
of Variance (ANOVA) were used for testing the research hypotheses at 0.05 level
of significance. The findings of this study showed that the Business studies
teachers in the upper 9 –year basic schools in Kwara state possessed 64 out of
the 114 identified competency items while the teachers do not possess
competencies in the remaining 50 items required for effective teaching and
learning of Business studies. The study also revealed that, there is no
significant difference in the mean ratings of the responses of the respondents
on the competencies possessed in instructional planning, classroom
organization, instructional evaluation and some aspects of the contents of
Business studies. Also, the study found out that there is a significant
difference in the mean ratings of the three groups of respondents on the
competencies possessed by the teachers in the use of office ICT and teaching of
computer in the upper 9-year basic schools in Kwara State. Based on the
findings, the researcher recommended that Business studies teachers be given
opportunities for self development in their profession through study leave with
pay, in order to acquire higher degrees for better performance, that workshops,
seminar, and conferences be organized by relevant ministries in the state for
capacity building and quality assurance of the teachers; that Business studies
teachers should be adequately motivated by the State government through
promotions as at when due, financial remunerations, and good welfare package
for them to develop high morale in carrying out their duties.
Background of the Study
The search for a means of providing the youth with the
educational experiences to equip them with skills and competencies is one of
the main goals of 9-year basic education introduced in Nigeria. The 9-year
basic education is the foundation for sustainable life-long learning because it
provides for reading, writing and numeracy skills which must be universally
embraced (FGN, 1999). The programme is indented to be universal, free and
compulsory (FGN, 2000) through the 9-year basic education (6-years primary and
3-years Junior Secondary). Unagha (2008) stated that the goal of the UBE
programme is to provide a functional, universal and quality education for all
Nigerians irrespective of age, sex, race, religion, occupation or location. It
is hoped that youths who pass through the basic education can leave the school
with necessary pre-vocational skills for sustainable livelihood in agriculture,
computer education, Business studies and other pre-vocational subjects.
Business studies in the view of Osuala (2004), is an area
of study that helps students to gain an awareness of how the labour market
functions, the present and future conditions foe employment, in the labour
market. Business studies has different areas which are bookkeeping, shorthand,
typewriting, office practice and commerce. It is a source of gaining entrance
and advancing in the world of work, the laws affecting economic matters and how
to make rational decision by applying such economic tools of analysis on opportunity
cost, and the law of diminishing returns through Business studies. The expected
pedagogy and skills in Business studies are impacted to the students in junior
secondary school classes under the guidance of the Business studies teachers.
A teacher, in view of Unachukwu (1990), is a person who
helps someone acquire or change some knowledge, skills, attitude, ideas or
appreciation. Obanewa (1994) stated that a teacher is someone who has undergone
the necessary and recommended training in a teacher preparatory programme and
is charged with responsibility of managing the classroom in such a way to
enhance possible learning behaviors of the students. The author stated that the
following human qualities would make a teacher stand out among other professionals.
The teacher needs to be physically fit at all times, committed to his job, an
innovator, exercise self control, learn how to take right decisions at all
times, must always be sincere, demonstrate democratic leadership and mastery of
the subject matter he teaches. A Business studies teacher in the context of
this study is a graduate of college of education/university, who must have
undergone the necessary recommended training in business studies and has the
responsibilities of delivery instruction in Business studies to junior
secondary schools students following curriculum contents at that level.
Curriculum in the opinion of Offorma (2009) is a document, plan,
or blue print for instructional guide which is used for teaching and learning
to bring about positive and desirable change in behavior. Esu (2009), in her
own submission sees curriculum as those knowledge, activities and experiences
both formal and informal, planned and guided by the school for the benefit of
the learners. Curriculum in the context of this study refers to an
instructional guide prepared and approved for teaching, knowledge transfer,
impartation of skills and attitudes in Business studies to students in junior
secondary schools through the teacher. To appropriately implement business
studies curriculum in junior secondary school, the teachers must be effective.
Effectiveness according to Hornby (2003) is producing the result
that is wanted or intended of producing a successful result. Malm and Lofgran
(2006) described effective teacher as somebody who set a clear benchmarks for
performances to the students in order to have high expectations and to the
parents, to clearly share performance results. Mkpa (1987) confirms that there
are some criteria for teacher effectiveness which include teachers’ mastery of
relevant content of subjects, production and utilization of instructional
materials, use of appropriate and strategies, creation of conducive-teaching
learning environment and effective instructional evaluation. Kemp and Hall
(1992) stated that effective teacher gives systematic feedback to students
about their performance. Students achieve more when teachers employ systematic
teaching procedures and spend more time working with students throughout the
day. Kemp and Hall (1992) stated further that evidence from teacher
effectiveness studies indicates that students’ engagement in learning is to be
valued above curriculum plan and materials. Studies of teacher effectiveness at
the classroom level have found that deferential teacher effectiveness is a
strong determinant of differences in student learning. According to Malm et.al (2006)
the level of competencies of a Business study teacher determines
the degree of success of instruction.
Competency according Hornby (2001) is the ability to do
something well, to have enough knowledge or skills, attitudes that can be
developed through training and which are adequate for accomplishing specific
task. Nwankwo (2004) noted that to be competent means that one is proficient,
equipped with requisite skills; mentally and physically to achieve set goals.
Competency as described by The Longman Dictionary of contemporary English
(1995) is the ability and skill to do what is needed. It is thus having enough
skills and knowledge to do something to a satisfactory standard. Competence
therefore, involves the demonstration of skills, knowledge and values in
accordance with principles of consistency and accuracy; it is a state or
quality of being adequately well qualified. Ogwo (2002) explained that competency
is characterized by clearly stated, attainable and measurable objectives,
followed by identified knowledge and skills that learners have to master within
a given time frame. The author emphasizes that demonstration of skill on the
job and it is performance oriented. Hammond (2000) viewed teachers’
competencies as the extent to which a teacher has knowledge and skills. Elis
(2005) stated that teachers’ competence include three main components which
include: Interpersonal skills, Classroom procedures and Knowledge of subject
Thus, competence in the context of this study is the ability of
teachers of Business studies to demonstrate mastery of content in Business
Studies including the ability to manipulate instructional elements in Business
Studies in junior secondary schools. If the teacher could perform the expected
competencies is viewed to be a competent teacher. The competencies to be
accessed in this study in teaching of Business Studies in junior secondary
school include planning instruction, classroom organization, instructional
evaluation and knowledge in business study content.
Instructional planning, according to Olaitan (2003) is a stage
where what is planned is carefully delivered to the learner through the
teachers in a school or suitable learning environment. Olaitan stated further
that there are two basic areas of instruction.
of instruction (instructional planning).
instructional or delivery stage.
In the view of Afangodeh (2009) instructional planning is a
process of documenting or production of a blue print for instructional guide
which is used for teaching and learning, to bring about positive and desirable
changes in learners‘behaviors. Olaitan (2003) explained further that
instructional planning as the process of deciding what activities (of both
teachers and students) contents, allocation and sequential study of the content
and the scope of the classroom program me. The author stated that instructional
planning contains two broad aspects which include.
instructional planning such as the course title, course unit, justifications
and intended learning outcome.
planning includes, units, sub-topics, objectives units’ content, teacher’s
activities, learner’s activities, methods, required materials and evaluation.
Instructional planning in the context of this study is activity
towards ensuring effective allocation of time and logical sequence in which
each topic or course in Business studies is taught to pupils in an organized
classroom situation in the 9-year upper basic schools.
The question of the influence of classroom organization on the
teaching performance of teachers has remained unresolved. Ingersell and Smilt
(2003) stated that classroom organization and teachers competencies significantly
influence the persistence of teachers. In the submission of Emmer and Stough
(2010) organization of classroom is the ability of teachers to manage the
behaviors of their students which is critically achieving positive educational
outcomes. Domovan and Cross (2002) observed that inability of teachers to
effectively manage classroom behavior often contributes to low achievement of
the students. On this note, Emmer and Stough (2002) therefore stated that
effective classroom organization requires comprehensive approaches which
include structuring the school and classroom environment, actively supervising
student engagement and implementing classroom rules during instructional
organization, implementation and evaluation in teaching and learning situation.
Instructional evaluation according to Danielson (2000) is the
process of identifying and measuring instructional strategies, professional
behavior and delivery of content knowledge that positively affect students
learning. Olaitan (2003) stated that it is the process by which a teacher makes
use of certain techniques to find out whether the learner clearly understands
what he was taught and whether the objectives of instruction are being
achieved. Nolan and Hover (2005) identified two types of instructional
evaluation which include formative and summative evaluation; formative
evaluations are meant to provide teachers with feedback on how to improve
performance and what types of professional development opportunities will
enhance their practice and summative evaluations are used to make a final
decision. Stevens (2000) stated that instructional evaluation results create
and implement professional development plans. In the views of Offorma
(2002) and Brandt (2007) instructional evaluation is the process of assessing
the strengths and weaknesses of the total programme. Strough (2007) identified
current teacher evaluation tools, which include the followings; classroom
observation, self assessment, portfolio assessment and student achievement
data. The ability of the teachers of Business studies to effectively apply the
evaluation tools on assessment of the students depends on the teachers’
knowledge of the content of subject matter.
Content knowledge is an essential quality for an effective
teacher. Olumale (2009) explained that a teacher who has a good round
understanding is effective in his discourse. Olufemu (2004) suggested that the
teachers should have a mastery of the subject matter he is teaching and he
should keep abreast with important development in his field. Hammound
(2003) explained that content knowledge and teacher competence are measures for
measuring students’ outcome or supervisory rating. In this study, content
competency will be assessed as one of the indicators of teacher effectiveness in
junior secondary schools.
The variables assessed in this study include qualification and
gender Agbi (1997) reported that the social background, age and sex of the
teacher, the educational institution attended and the type of programme the
institution offered, the qualification obtained among others determine how a
teacher performs. The qualification of a teacher has been widely reported as
having considerable influence on the level of performance of the classroom
teacher. Uzoagulu (1992), while discussing attributes that affect students’
performance noted that teacher qualification is a factor of students’ level of
achievement in school subjects. In his report, Domingo-Inyang (1998) observed
that students taught by qualified teachers performed better in examinations
than students taught by less-qualified teachers. This study therefore
determines the influence of gender and qualification on teachers’ possession of
competencies in Business studies. To classify qualified and unqualified
teachers, the Federal Republic of Nigeria (FRN) (2004) stated that the Nigeria
Certificate in Education (NCE) is the minimum qualification for entry into the
teaching profession. Consequently, any teacher with NCE in Business studies was
considered qualified to teach Business studies in junior secondary school.
Teachers with NCE therefore, for the purpose of this work were regarded as
qualified to teach Business studies at the upper 9-basic schools.
The question of the influence of gender on the teaching
performance of teachers has remained unresolved. Mama (1996) noted that gender
as a factor in academic performance has been the concern of educational
researchers over the years remarking that the dominant questions have been
whether or not there are sex differences in academic achievement. Nwakwo (2004)
noted that male and female differences in performance in the teaching of
Business studies are not significant. On the other hand, Agbi (1997) emphasized
that great differences exist between males and females in their academic
performance. Citing Grant (1973), Mam (1996), summarized that these differences
emanate from the biological differences and the differences in socio-cultural
demands on males and females. The influence of gender on possession
of competencies by Business studies teachers was determined by the
Statement of the Problem
For a number of years there has been the concern with lack of
confidence of many Business studies teachers in the upper 9-basic education,
when teaching Business studies (Okoh, 1999). This confidence has been
attributed to a number of causes including, a careful assessment of the
cognitive, affective and psychomotor dimensions, utilization of textbooks, the
dwindling financial resources of government, and availability of teachers in the
schools (Yates and Goodrum 1990: Jeans and Farnsulor 1992: Tasker 1993). They
attributed the lack of competency to a number of factors such as poor
background knowledge, few readily available of teaching materials, classroom
management difficulties. Due to all these students achievement in business
studies does not record a high success.
According to Aina (2005), the performance of students in
business studies in both internal and external examinations were poor. The
result released from Kwara State Ministry of Education for the Junior Secondary
Schools Examination (JSCE) from 2007-2010 showed that students fail business
studies because questions set from shorthand, typewriting and accounting
were found difficult by the students. This led to poor performance of the
students in business studies as revealed by the report. This indicates that
many problems besetting the teaching and learning of Business studies in the
upper 9 year basic education may be as a result of teachers’ perceptions, poor
methodologies and inadequate instructional materials; hence, this study will
asses; teachers competencies in the teaching of Business studies at the upper 9
Purpose of the Study
The major purpose of the study is to assess the competencies
possessed by teachers of Business studies in the upper basic schools in Kwara
Specifically, this study seeks to identify the following:
possessed by teachers of Business studies in planning instruction.
possessed by teachers of Business studies in organizing classroom
possessed by teachers of Business studies in evaluation instruction.
out the competencies possessed by Business studies teachers in content
Significance of the Study
The finding of the study will be of immense benefit to the
Universal Basic Education Board, teaching service commission, supervisors,
government, curriculum planners and teachers of business studies in the
upper 9-basic schools in Kwara State.
The study will provide information to Kwara State government
through Universal Basic Education Board in the state. The boards could make use
of this information to package the competencies in teaching into modules for
re-training their teachers for better performance on the job. The result that
will emanate from the study will be found very useful to the state teaching
service commission. This is because, the findings of the study could be used as
benchmark or yardstick for assessing the competencies of the teachers during
recruitment exercise into the state secondary school teaching.
The junior secondary school curriculum planners will find the
results of this study very useful and see the need to further broaden the scope
of Business studies in the syllabus in line with the major findings of this
study in the Nigeria education system. This is because, Business studies is an
important school subject at the junior secondary school level and it requires
competent teachers for quality instructional delivery for the achievement of
the required change in knowledge and attitudes of the students in the subject.
The results of this study will be beneficial to fellow researchers with keen
interest in Business studies, assessment of teachers’ competencies in other
school subjects. This is because, the results and information that will be
provided will help to sharpen the focus of their studies.
The study will provide information to teachers on the identified
competencies required by them for becoming more professionals on the job. This
information could help them to understand their responsibilities and also help
them to seek for fund from the board for professional re-training through
workshop or short term courses.
With focus on teachers of Business Studies in Kwara State
9-years basic the following questions are asked.
are the levels of competency possessed in the planning of instruction?
are the levels of competency possessed in organization of classroom?
are the levels of competency possessed in instructional evaluation?
are the levels of competency possessed in business studies contents?
The following hypotheses are formulated and will be tested at
0.05 level of significance.
Ho1: There is no
significant difference in the mean rating of the responses of male and female
Business studies teachers on the competencies possessed in planning
Ho2: There is no
significant difference in the mean rating of the responses of male and female
Business studies teachers on the competencies possessed in classroom
Ho3: There is no
significant difference in the mean rating of the responses of male and female
Business studies teachers on the competencies possessed in instructional
Ho4: There is no
significant difference in the mean rating of the responses of Business studies
teachers with postgraduate, degree/HND and pre-degree qualification on
competencies possessed in the contents of Business studies.
Scope of the Study
will be restricted to identification of competency possessed by teachers of
business studies in the upper basic schools in Kwara State. This study will
reveal teaching competencies in relation to teacher effectiveness in planning
instructions, organizing class room, instructional evaluation, content.