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The study examined Gender inequality and justice system in Nigeria. The descriptive survey method was adopted for the study. The respondents consist or comprised of a sample size of 120 male and female teachers from a population of 604 across 10 schools. A questionnaire was constructed and designed by the researcher with a validity index of 0.86 for data collection from which the data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis using mean and standard deviation. Results obtained revealed that the level of awareness on gender discrimination in Nigeria is alarming as majority of the Gender s are often treated as inferior. Hence, the findings of this study indicated that there is significant relationship between the societal beliefs and Gender Inequalities in Nigeria. In addition, it was revealed that discrimination against the Gender Inequalities occurs mostly in rural society. More so, factors affecting the Gender’s participation in education in Nigeria include; early marriage, cultural issues, domestic violence, teenage pregnancy and religious bias. Effect of gender discrimination of the Gender in societal development results to dropout, mental health, inadequate women, teacher’s poor academic performance and deprived access education for Gender.



Background of the Study

Education is an important foundation to improve the status of women and has been recognized as a potent and dynamic instrument for national development and social transformation. In every civilized society and especially in the African context, children are regarded as the pride of parents and the greatest value the society possesses. This is why children are mostly cherished and consciously protected from all forms of hazards and abuse. According to Obanya (2007) the Gender -Gender Inequalitiesal attainment is low as records have shown that fewer Gender s go to school than boys. Offorma, (2009) noted that this is because the Gender -children have not been so lucky to be cherished, protected and loved in Nigerian society due to certain traditional practices, stereotyping, cultural and religious beliefs which put them at the risk of abuse and neglect.

Gender inequality, discrimination and violence are anathema to human existence, healthy relationships and development. The issue of discrimination against the Gender -child has remained an unresolved issue and a major concern in the academic discourse. Igube, (2004) and Asare (2009) noted that the general inferior economic, social and political status of the Gender -child while recent studies are also showing the state of her existence from the formative-infancy stage through youth to the adult stage. More so, gender discrimination against the Gender Inequalities is contrary to fundamental human rights, equity, natural justice and good governance.

Section 42 of the constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1999 provides for freedom from discrimination on the grounds of ethnic group, origin, gender, religion, circumstances of birth, disability or political opinion. Unfortunately, gender discrimination on Gender’s education permeates every facet and this comes in several forms Nigerian society including Nigeria community. Nigeria is one of the 25 Urhobo kingdoms located in Ethiope East Local Government Delta state, Nigeria. It has five different villages namely; Oria, Urhuagbesa, Umeghe, Oteri and Otorho- Avwraka. Meanwhile, Nigeria is mostly known as a university town and has three campuses situated there. Nigeria town is a favorite destination for domestic and international tourists.

Forms of gender discriminatory practices and violence against Gender’s education in Nigeria geographical location includes; female genital mutilation, child marriage, ritualistic widowhood practices, nutritional taboos, cult prostitution, domestic violence and sexual freedom for husbands. Possible factors that predispose the situation are; traditional land tenure systems and patterns of inheritance, lack of access to credit, family preference for sons, lack of participation in public decision-making, discrimination in housing and employment, religious practices as well as incidence of rape, battery, trafficking in Gender and induced prostitution.

Fisho-Orideji, (2001) affirmed that the Gender -child problem around the world has many dimensions but the root of all kinds of discriminations and bias against the Gender lies in the customs, traditions and typical mindset of the society which considers the Gender and women as inferior beings. Women and Gender s have been treated in the most inhuman ways from the inception of human civilization. Whereas, Igube, (2004) believes that the legacy of injustice against the Gender has continued in some parts of the world especially in African and Asian countries where there is frequent female feticide, female infanticide, sexual abuse, marginalization in terms of nutrition, health care and education challenge for the Gender. There would therefore be no gain saying that violence against women and bias against women in all spheres of life including; social, political, economic and religious sphere is a common norm in today’s world (Alabi & Alabi, 2012).

Guttman, (2009) noted that the effect on gender discrimination of the Gender’s education remains that, half of the total sexual assaults in the world are committed against Genderren just as Fisho-Orideji, (2001) stated that, one of the leading causes of death among Genderren is the complication from pregnancy and child bearing. Thus, improving basic education, especially female education, has a powerful influence on both mortality and fertility in Nigeria. This study therefore seeks to examine the effect of gender discrimination on Gender -Gender Inequalities in Nigeria Ethiope East LGA of Delta State

Statement of Problem

            Education is light and this light is indispensable especially in this fast changing world. Education is said to be the only way a third world country like Nigeria can become developed. Education is very essential in today’s society and the Gender must be educated in order to have a bright future. Part of the fundamental human rights of a child is the right to education. There are many factors that militate against the Gender -Gender Inequalities.

In some Nigerian societies; they believe that it is an abomination to educate a female. Their beliefs are that women are supposed to be good cooks and mothers. Hence, education of the Gender is seen as a threat to male chauvinism. Some men believe that once the Gender is educated, she will be difficult to control and she could become loose, immoral and promiscuous. Consequently, the society in most cases sees the Gender -child as a second fiddle; as a result, little or no effort is made towards her education especially when the parents are made to make a choice between educating the male-child and the Gender -child.

Most of the common discrimination that appear to threaten the female gender include:  The belief that men are stronger than women, the belief that education of women is a waste of resources, the belief that men are the bread winners, the belief that the male child will be a support for parents in the old age, the belief is that the gild child will eventually marry and ‘come under’ their husbands hence they are treated as inferior. Furthermore, to perpetuate the superiority of the male child over the Gender -child, the Gender -child is trained to put herself below her male siblings. In some homes, in order to make up for the financial inadequacy of the family, the Gender -child is sent out to hawk in order to raise money for the family needs. In some cases, the Gender -child may be given off for domestic labour in urban area for a regular income to the family (Ezeliora and Ezeokana, 2011).

These traditional practices/beliefs impose a lot of restrictions on the female gender education. It is regrettable that despite our progress as a society there is still an underestimation of the value of the Gender -child. The psychological effect of gender discrimination and socio-cultural beliefs on the Gender -child is the internalization of the low value accorded them by society. Hence, this study therefore seeks to ascertain the effects of gender discrimination on Gender Inequalities in Nigeria, Ethiope East Local Government area of Delta State.

Citation - Reference

All Project Materials Inc. (2020). GENDER INEQUALITY AND JUSTICE SYSTEM IN NIGERIA. Available at: [Accessed: ].


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