FORMULATION, SENSORY AND NUTRITIONAL EVALUATION OF CHIN -CHIN MADE FROM BRACHYSTEGIA EURYCOMA, SWEET POTATO IPOMOEABATATASL. AND WHEAT TRITICUM AESTIVUM FLOUR BLENDS



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FORMULATION, SENSORY AND NUTRITIONAL EVALUATION OF CHIN -CHIN MADE FROM BRACHYSTEGIA EURYCOMA, SWEET POTATO IPOMOEABATATASL. AND WHEAT TRITICUM AESTIVUM FLOUR BLENDS



ABSTRACT

 

A wide variety of snacks are available in the Nigerian market, however, individuals with health condition are usually limited in their choices due to the high fat, low fibre and nutrient content of most wheat-based snacks. This study was designed to formulate nutritionally adequate and acceptable chin-chin from indigenous food   materials and determine their nutrient composition and sensory characteristics. The two (2) commonly available food materials used in the study were collected from Marian market, Calabar and were processed into ready-to-use flours. The food materials include; dried and ground pink-skin sweet potato (Sp) and dehulled, dried and ground Brachystegia eurycoma (Bf). Standard analytical procedures were used to determine the proximate composition. Five (5) samples of chin-chin with varied proportions of the flours were formulated and their sensory and general acceptability accessed by students of the Human Nutrition and Dietetics unit and other departments using a 9-point hedonic scale. The two most generally accepted formulations were evaluated for their nutrient composition by comparing then with the commercial chin-chin. Statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS), version (20) was used to analyse the data obtained. Data were presented as meanSD. Analysis of variance was used to compare means, and means were separated using Least Significant Difference (LSD). Significant difference was accepted at P<0.05. Two formulated chin-chin samples; BF30:SP40:WF30 (B. eurycoma + sweet potato + wheat) and BF20:SP60:WF20 (B. eurycoma + sweet potato + wheat) were well acceptable in terms of colour, texture, aroma, taste and overall acceptability. Brachystegia eurycoma was the main source of protein and fat. However, the overall result revealed that the proximate composition of the formulated chin-chin were comparable and  in some cases higher than the values in the control. The formulated chin-chin; BF30:SP40:WF30 (B. eurycoma + sweet potato + wheat) recorded the highest value for dietary fibre (3.56 0.007g/100g) and fat (6.180.007g/100g) while the control recorded the least value for dietary fibre (0.540.007g/100g) and fat (2.900.007g/100g). Thus, the utilization of these indigenous food materials in food, will enhance the nutritional status of the population in Nigeria in particular, and developing countries in general.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

TITLE PAGE –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           i

 

CERTIFICATION     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           ii

 

DEDICATION           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           iii

 

ACKNOWLEDGMENT       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           iv

 

ABSTRACT   –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           v

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           vi

 

LIST OF TABLES     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           x

 

LIST OF FIGURES   –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           xi

 

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

 

1.1       Background of the study        –           –           –           –           –           –           1

 

1.2       Statement of Problem –           –           –           –           –           –           –           5

 

1.3       Objectives of the study           –           –           –           –           –           –           7

 

1.3.1    Specific Objectives of the Study        –           –           –           –           –           7

 

1.4       Significance of the Study       –           –           –           –           –           –           7

 

1.5    Scope of the Study        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           8

 

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

 

2.1       Concept and definition of product development       –           –           –           10

 

2.1.1    Product development frameworks      –           –           –           –           –           11

 

2.1.2    Importance of product development –           –           –           –           –           12

 

2.2       Sensory quality of food         –           –           –           –           –           –           13

 

2.3       Concept of composite flour    –           –           –           –           –           –           14

 

2.3.1    Advantages of composite flour          –           –           –           –           –           16

 

2.3.2    Benefit of composite flour in food production          –           –           –           17

 

2.4       Biology and nutritional value of main food ingredients for product           

 

development   –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           19

 

2.4.1    Brachystegia eurycoma           –           –           –           –           –           –           19

 

2.4.2    Pink fleshed sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas l.)          –           –           –           26

 

2.4.3    Wheat –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           29

 

2.5       Evaluation of Sensory and organoleptic quality of food        –           –           30

 

2.6       Evaluation of food quality      –           –           –           –           –           –           33

 

CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS

 

3.1       Sample collection        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           36

 

3.2       Sample preparation     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           36

 

3.2.1    Pink fleshed potato (Ipomoea batatas I)                     –           –           –           36

 

3.2.2    Brachystegia eurycoma           –           –           –           –           –           –           37

 

3.3       Methods of chemical analysis –           –           –           –           –           –           38

 

3.3.1    Proximate composition           –           –           –           –           –           –           38

 

3.3.1.1 Determination of moisture content     –           –           –           –           –           38

 

3.3.1.2 Determination of Ash Content           –           –           –           –           –           39

 

3.3.1.3 Determination of crude fat     –           –           –           –           –           –           40

 

3.3.1.4 Determination of Dietary fibre           –           –           –           –           –           40

 

3.3.1.5 Determination of crude protein content         –           –           –           –           41

 

3.3.1.6 Determination of available carbohydrate content       –           –           –           42

 

3.3.1.7 Determination of Caloric value           –           –           –           –           –           42

 

3.4       Pilot study      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           43

 

3.4.1   Formulation of blends for pilot study  –           –           –           –           –           43

 

3.4.2   Preparation of Chin-chin          –           –           –           –           –           –           43

 

3.5       Pilot Testing of Formulated Chin-chin           –           –           –           –           47

 

3.6       Final Sensory Evaluation        –           –           –           –           –           –           47

 

3.7     Statistical Analysis        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           48

 

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS

 

4.1       Energy (Kcal) and proximate composition (g/100g) of processed food

 

Samples           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           48

 

4.2       Sensory evaluation of formulated snacks from pilot test       –           –           50

 

4.2.1: Sensory evaluation of formulated chin-chin     –           –           –           –           53

 

4.3       Nutritional evaluation of the formulated chin-chin  and  the control diet      55

 

4.3.1    Nutrients composition of formulated chin-chin          –           –           –           55

 

CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

 

5.1       Nutritive values of the food samples  –           –           –           –           –           57

 

5.2       Sensory evaluation of formulated chin-chin samples –           –           –           60

 

5.3       Nutritive value of the formulated chin-chin   –           –           –           –           62

 

5.4       Conclusion      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           65

 

5.5       Recommendations      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           66

 

REFERENCES

Citation - Reference

All Project Materials Inc. (2020). FORMULATION, SENSORY AND NUTRITIONAL EVALUATION OF CHIN -CHIN MADE FROM BRACHYSTEGIA EURYCOMA, SWEET POTATO IPOMOEABATATASL. AND WHEAT TRITICUM AESTIVUM FLOUR BLENDS. Available at: https://researchcub.info/department/paper-8413.html. [Accessed: ].

FORMULATION, SENSORY AND NUTRITIONAL EVALUATION OF CHIN -CHIN MADE FROM BRACHYSTEGIA EURYCOMA, SWEET POTATO IPOMOEABATATASL. AND WHEAT TRITICUM AESTIVUM FLOUR BLENDS


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