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PERFORMANCE OF BUNAJI CATTLE FED DIETS CONTAINING GRADED LEVELS OF PALM KERNEL CAKE



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PERFORMANCE OF BUNAJI CATTLE FED DIETS CONTAINING GRADED LEVELS OF PALM KERNEL CAKE



Three experiments were conducted in this study to determine the performance of Bunaji weaner calves, yearling bulls and fattened bulls fed diets containing 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% levels of Palm Kernel Cake (PKC) inclusion. The first experiment was conducted using thirty (30) Bunaji weaner calves (15 bulls and 15 heifer calves) with a live weight range of 85-94kg and age range of 7.5-9 months. The animals were balanced for weight and allotted to five (5) dietary treatments in a 2x5factorial arrangement laid in Completely Randomized Design. The second experiment was a growth trial conducted using 20 yearling Bunaji bulls with live weight range of 110-150kg and aged 1-1.5 years while In the third experiment, a fattening trial was conducted using 20 Bunaji bulls with a live weight range of 190-200kg and aged 2- 2.5 years. The yearling and finishing bulls were balanced for weight and allotted to five dietary treatments with four bulls per treatment in Completely Randomized Design. They were individually penned and fed diets containing graded levels of Palm Kernel Cake (PKC) and Digitaria smutsii (Wolly finger grass)hay at 2% of their body weight each. Feeding and metabolism trials were conducted for 90 and 21 days respectively for the three experiments. Blood samples were collected for PCV and biochemical parameters at the beginning, middle and end of the feeding trials. Rumen fluid were collected at 0, 3, 6 and 9hrs intervals to determine the rumen pH, rumen ammonia nitrogen and rumen total volatile fatty acid for the yearling and fattened bulls. The CP contents of the weaner diets vary between 13.88 and 18.00% while the ME ranged from 11.79 to 11.81MJ/kg DM. The crude fibre varied from 28.00 to 33.50%. The CP contents of the yearling diets varied between 14.19 and 17.75% while ME ranged from 11.79 to 11.81MJ/kg DM. The crude fibre varied from

 

 

 

26.36-38.77%. The CP of the fattening diets varied between 15.63 and 20.31% while ME ranged from 11.75 to 11.78MJ/kg DM. The crude fibre varied from 13.92 to 23.31%. The result of the weaner trial when effect of sex on performance was considered showed significant (P<0.05) difference in most of the parameters measured, it was higher in bull calves than heifer though FCR was more superior in heifer calves than bull calves.When the level of inclusion was considered, the result of the feeding trial showed significant (P<0.05) difference in most of the parameters measured except the initial weight. Animals on diets containing 30% PKC (0.58Kg) inclusion had the highest weight gain. Highest weight gain was obtained for bull at 30% PKC (0.65Kg) while the lowest weight gain was obtained for heifer at 0%PKC (0.38Kg). There were significant differences (P< 0.05) in all the digestible parameters measured and positive nitrogen balance , when effect of sex and level of inclusion of PKC was considered. The PCV and biochemical parameters analysed when effect of sex, effect of PKC inclusion and combine effect of sex and PKC inclusion were considered all fall within the normal range. The economic analyses showed that cost per kg gain was highest at 0% PKC inclusion and lowest at 40% PKC. Weight gain and value of gain (VWG) was highest at 30% PKC inclusion and lowest at 0% PKC inclusion. There was positive Net Benefit (NB) and Return to Investment on feed (RIF) when sex, level of PKC inclusion and combine effect of sex and level of inclusion was considered hence it was concluded from the result of the performance, digestibility trial, blood analyses and economic analyses that PKC can be fed to weaner calves of both sexes at 30% PKC for optimum performance without any adverse effect. In the yearling trials, Average total feed intake (ATFI) ranged between 5.38-5.61Kg/day. Average daily weight gain was highest for animal on 0% PKC while those on 10, 20, 30, 40% PKC inclusion where similar (P>0.05). All the experimental bulls attained an average weight gain of between 0.66Kg to 0.75Kg. Rumen parameters were significantly (P<0.05) affected by sampling time, The result showed that Rumen pH at 0hr was highest (7.08) and lowest at 3hrs post feeding,(6.66),RAN value was similar at 0hr pre feeding (10.44 mg/100ml) and 3hr post feeding (9.93 mg/100ml) but differ at 6hr (8.25 mg/100ml) and 9hrs post feeding (8.34mg/100ml). Cost per Kg gain was similar at 0 and 20%PKC inclusion and lowest at 40% PKC. VWG were not significant (P>0.05) for bulls on 10, 20, 30 and 40% PKC inclusion. There was positive NB and RIF across treatments. The inclusion of PKC led to reduction in feed cost from N 19598 to a range of N 18761.00- N 15609.00 (about 4.27%-20% reduction in feed cost). It was therefore concluded that PKC can be included in yearling diets at 40% for optimum performance.In the fattening study, ATFI ranged between 8.67-9.11Kg as fed /day with animals on 10, 20 and 40% PKC being statistically similar (P>0.05). The result showed that Total Volatile Fatty Acid (TVFA) was highest at 9hr post feeding (28.19)but differed at 0hr (23.80), 3hrs (24.15) and 6hrs(6.92) which were similar (P>0.05). At 3hr and 9hrs post feeding RAN was similar at 0,10,30 and 40%PKC. Blood glucose was highest for animals on diets containing 10%PKC inclusion (3.50mmol/l) and lowest for those on 30% PKC (2.88mmol/l).When sampling interval was considered, PCV value was highest at the end of the experiment (33.68%) and least value was obtained at the middle of the experiment.(31.86%) . The result of the carcass evaluation showed significant (P<0.05) difference in most of the measured parameters except for value obtained for longissimus muscle. Beef % of carcass was highest for bulls fed diets containing 0%PKC inclusion, followed by those on 10, 20 and 40% PKC but differ for bulls on 30% PKC inclusion. Dressing % was highest for bulls fed 40%PKC inclusion which was similar to those on 30%PKC; the least value was obtained for animals on 20%PKC which was similar to those on 0% and 10%PKC inclusion. There was significant (P<0.05) difference in most of the parameters measured except the initial weight which was not significant (P>0.05) across treatment. live weight gain of the bulls was lowest for the control diet (1.14Kg) which was statistically similar with those on 20% (1.16Kg) and 40% (1.18Kg) while the highest weight gain was recorded for bulls fed diet containing 10% PKC inclusion (1.33Kg) which was not significant (P>0.05) to those on 30% PKC inclusion (1.31Kg). Bulls on 30%PKC has a more superior FCR (6.52)which was similar to those on 10%PKC (6.67) while animals on 0%PKC has the least FCR (7.57), Cost per kg gain was highest at 0% PKC inclusion and lowest a t 40% PKC. NB and VWG were similar (P>0.05) for bulls on 10 and 30%PKC inclusion. There was positive NB and RIF across treatment. The inclusion of PKC lead to reduction in feed cost from N 29389 to a range of N 28857- N 22099 (about 1.8%-24% reduction in feed cost) therefore it was concluded that PKC can be included in fattening diets at 30% for optimum performance.

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

 

 

1.0 INTRODUCTION

 

The dry season in Nigeria is a period of nutritional stress for ruminant livestock. Rangelands for animals to graze only blossom in the rainy season while in dry season they become standing hay (Bamigboye et al., 2013). Thus, animals will have abundant feed in the wet season and a shortage of feed in the dry season. The problem of nutritional stress is more prominent in the northern states where the dry season feed supply for stock is poor forage that is low in protein and energy. The result is that ruminant animals (cattle, sheep and goats) consume less of these forages and their intake cannot provide for maintenance let alone production. The animals therefore lose weight unless they are provided with supplementary feeds. Supplementary feeds therefore are additional feeds fed to livestock to make up for the shortfall of available feed, offered with the intention of increasing animal intake as well as preventing weight loss and enhancing weight gain.

 

The conventional protein sources of concentrate such as groundnut cake, soya bean cake and cotton seed cake are expensive and coupled with the fact that their prices fluctuate in the markets, especially when they are out of season. There is a need to circumvent the problem of this scarcity and increase the ingredient base for livestock feeds which will go a long way to decrease the overall cost of feed to farmers. Therefore, attention has been directed toward the search for agro – industrial by products and crop residues that have low inclusion rate in Monogastric feed formulation and are not directly consumed by human beings but relished by ruminants (Devendra and Sevilla, 2002 and AFRIS 2006) especially in cattle with the aim of reducing scarcity of feed. One of such alternative by- product is Palm Kernel Cake (PKC). Palm kernel cake is an abundant and cheap source of protein compared to other conventional feed sources. It is one of the most abundant protein meals in the country produced in more than one third of the country area with a current production of 400000 tonnes (USDA, 2014). Its production is all year round with a peakthat falls between the months of March and May, when all other conventional protein sources are scarce and expensive. Palm kernel cake has been accepted as a useful component in animal feeds, especially in Asia and Europe and is also gradually gaining ground in Africa. It is a reasonably goodeconomic feed for both ruminant and monogastric feeding. Since it is an agro-industrial by-product that is being produced locally and within the West African sub-region in sizeable quantities, this feed resource should be fully utilized to reduce feed cost and also curb the problem of environmental pollution that accompanies its disposal (Boateng et al., 2008).

 

1.1 Justification

 

Palm kernel meal is an important feed ingredient and the main by-product from the oil palm (Elaeis guinensis) extraction. Palm kernel meal is highly fibrous and has a medium grade protein content which is more suitable in feeding of ruminants and rabbits (Pickard, 2005). Palm kernel cake which is a by-product gotten by mechanical extraction of palm kernel contains 5-12% oil and 0.5– 3% oil in solvent-extracted (Chin, 2001). Most meal produced from palm kernel is used for animal feeding (FAO, 2012). Palm kernel cake contains 18.5-21.21% crude protein (Aduku, 1993), 9.06-10.31% crude fibre (Oyenuga, 1968 and Fetuga et al.,1973), 11.7MJ/Kg energy (Nwokolo et al.,1977) and has been used as energy and protein source in ruminants ( Alimon 2004, Ehoche et al., 1993, Silva et al., 2013,Wan Zahari and Alimon (2004) and Wong et al (2010) . However, there are varied reports on its suitability and level of inclusion in the diets of cattle Ehoche et al., (1993) conducted an experiment with dairy cattle ( Friesan x Bunaji Heifers) to determine the effect of supplementation of graded levels of palm kernel meal on intake compared with the utilization of maize stover. It was reported that the inclusion of palm kernel meal up to 30% resulted into comparable weight gain as those animals on maize stover ration. Rekwot et al.(1993) also carried out an experiment on the reproductive function of Friesan x Bunaj i bulls grazing natural pastures and receiving supplements containing palm kernel meal. It was concluded that cotton seed cake can be replaced by up to 60% Palm kernel meal as supplementary feeds for grazing bulls to the maintenance of reproductive functio n. The performance of cross bred bulls grazing natural pasture and receiving supplement containing Palm kernel meal was studied by Adamu et al.,(1993). It was demonstrated that palm kernel meal can replace all the cotton seed cake in the supplements fed to cattle without significant loss in rates of live weight gain. Although, some works have been done on its incorporation in the diets of beef cattle in Nigeria, especially on cross breed and indigenous breed reared mainly on semi intensive management system (Adamu et al., 1993, Ehoche et al., 1993 and Rekwot et al.,1993), not much has been done on its inclusion in the diets of indigenous breed of cattle under intensive system of management in Nigeria. Hence, the need to undertake this study, the aim of this study is therefore to determine the possibility of incorporating this cheap and relatively available protein source to replace cotton seed cake in the diet of weaner, yearling and finishing beef cattle.

 

1.2 Objectives of the Study

 

The study is targeted towards reducing dependence on cotton seed cake as protein source for feeding beef cattle.

 

 

 

The specific objectives for the experiments are to:

 

Evaluate the performance of weaner calves, yearling and finishing Bunaji cattle fed diets with graded levels of palm kernel cake (PKC).

Study the profitability of feeding diets with graded level of palm kernel cake to weaner calves, yearling and finishing Bunaji cattle

Determine the carcass yield of finishing Bunaji bulls fed die ts with graded level of palm kernel cake.

1.3 Hypotheses (Ho and Ha) for the experiments

 

Ho: Diets containing graded levels of palm kernel cake have no effect on the performance of weaner calves, yearling and finishing Bunaji cattle.

 

Ha : Diets containing graded levels of palm kernel cake have an effect on the performance of weaner calves, yearling and finishing Bunaji cattle.

 

Ho: There are no differences in profitability of weaner calves, yearling and finishing Bunaji cattle fed diets containing graded levels of palm kernel cake.

 

Ha : There are differences in profitability of weaner calves, yearling and finishing Bunaji cattle fed diets containing graded levels of palm kernel cake.

 

 

 

Ho: Diets containing graded levels of palm kernel cake do not enhance carcass yield of finishing Bunaji bulls.

 

Ha : Diets containing graded levels of palm kernel cake enhance carcass yield of finishing Bunaji bulls. 

Citation - Reference

All Project Materials Inc. (2020). PERFORMANCE OF BUNAJI CATTLE FED DIETS CONTAINING GRADED LEVELS OF PALM KERNEL CAKE. Available at: https://researchcub.info/department/paper-8377.html. [Accessed: ].

PERFORMANCE OF BUNAJI CATTLE FED DIETS CONTAINING GRADED LEVELS OF PALM KERNEL CAKE


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Three experiments were conducted in this study to determine the performance of Bunaji weaner calves, yearling bulls and fattened bulls fed diets containing 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% levels of Palm Kernel Cake (PKC) inclusion. The first experiment was conducted using thirty (30) Bunaji weaner calves (15 bulls and 15 heifer calves) with a live weight range of 85-94kg and age range of 7.5-9 months. The animals were balanced for weight and allotted to five (5) dietary treatments in a 2x5factorial arrangement laid in Completely Randomized Design. The second experiment was a growth trial conducted using 20 yearling Bunaji bulls with live weight range of 110-150kg and aged 1-1.5 years while In the third experiment, a fattening trial was conducted using 20 Bunaji bulls with a live weight range of 190-200kg and aged 2- 2.5 years. The yearling and finishing bulls were balanced for weight and allotted to five dietary treatments with four bulls per treatment in Completely Randomized Design. They were individually penned and fed diets containing graded levels of Palm Kernel Cake (PKC) and Digitaria smutsii (Wolly finger grass)hay at 2% of their body weight each. Feeding and metabolism trials were conducted for 90 and 21 days respectively for the three experiments. Blood samples were collected for PCV and biochemical parameters at the beginning, middle and end of the feeding trials. Rumen fluid were collected at 0, 3, 6 and 9hrs intervals to determine the rumen pH, rumen ammonia nitrogen and r.. Click here for more

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