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COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF DIFFERENTLY PROCESSED WHOLE EGG POWDER



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COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF DIFFERENTLY PROCESSED WHOLE EGG POWDER



CHAPTER ONE

 

1.0         INTRODUCTION

 

Agriculture in Nigeria has over the last few years received increasing attention with both Federal and State Governments encouraging the Nigerian populace especially the youth to embrace agriculture as a profession and a means out of the current recession (African Economic Outlook, 2012).

 

USDA (2013) as cited by Heise et al. (2015) reported that of the various components of animal husbandry, poultry farming is the most popular and probably lucrative. Nigerian Federal and State governments are investing in poultry production. Egg production plays a vital role in poultry farming and has been on the increase with various government programmes such as “Feed the School Children” encouraging more people to embark on poultry production. Eggs are laid by female animals of many different species, including birds, reptiles, amphibians, mammals, and fish, however among other avian the most popular choice for egg consumption are chicken eggs. They are a cost effective animal protein with a potential to contribute to food and nutrition security and generate rural household livelihoods (Lannotti et al., 2014) and are considered to be nature‟s most nearly perfect food for mankind and are therefore used as the reference protein for assessing protein quality of other proteins. Eggs are also sources of vitamins A, D, B1 (Olomu, 2011).

 

Eggs in general are one of the cornerstones of baked goods and cooking with breads, cakes, bakery mixes, and an assortment of desserts owing much of their unique texture, taste and moisture to the egg. Eggs are low in saturated fats and are good sources of high quality protein and varying amounts of 13 essential vitamins and minerals, including Vitamin A, B12 and folate hence them being termed as a “nutritional powerhouse”. Eggs are extremely perishable and must be kept refrigerated as they have a relatively short shelf life. They are also delicate and bulky thereby having increased risk of breakage during transportation. (Lauber, 2007; 2017)

 

The cyclical egg glut in Nigeria characterized by egg spoilage, egg quality deterioration, and wastage in the process of transporting excess eggs which eventually results in loss of inputs to poultry farmers which spans for about 3 months /year is on the increase as more individuals embark on poultry production in order to alleviate poverty and unemployment. Poultry farmers across the nation have cried out that the glut being experienced was likely to discourage farmers from further production and cause a collapse in the poultry sector (African Economic Outlook, 2012). The situation has not changed even as at today (Okojie, 2017).

 

Powdered, dried eggs provide a convenient alternative to fresh eggs and add quality and consistent performance to the list of attributes. In addition, dry egg products can be stored up to a year or longer under proper storage conditions, the risk of bacterial contamination due to improper handling is significantly reduced as well as the cleanup time. Powdered, dried eggs are a solution to bulkiness and fragility of fresh eggs as well as storage challenges as they can be stored up to a year or longer under proper storage conditions, (Jay, 2000). For bakers, powdered egg products provide consistency from batch to batch and are always ready. Egg solids blend well with other dry ingredients and can be used immediately without cracking or thawing (Anonymous 2010) and when it comes to using eggs as a source of protein for dietary supplement or muscle gain, eggs rate as the cheapest source of high quality protein and egg powder further reduce this cost (Heymann, 2015). It an ideal alternative for individuals who cannot consume dairy products due to lactose intolerance as it is lactose free (Greenfield, 2013).

 

Several processing and preservation methods like spray drying, tray drying and freeze drying techniques have been adopted with advantages and disadvantages on the qualities of the products (Potter and Hotchkiss, 2006). The use of dehydrator is another method for making egg powder with both dehydrated and freeze dried food having similar benefits, including a potentially far longer shelf life than home canned food as they are both stable products when stored in a cool, dry place (Dodrill, 2014).

 

Powdered eggs are popular in several developed countries with little or no differences reported between fresh eggs and egg powder however, Nigeria despite her achievement in agriculture most especially in poultry-egg production, has a limited or practically no provision for handling processing of eggs. This study explored some adaptable processes o f transforming fresh eggs into whole egg powder thereby extending its shelf- life while still maintaining its richness.

 

1.1    Problem Statement

 

For about a decade now, a huge attention has been shifted to poultry farming most especially for egg production especially in the light of the current recession. However, farmers have been bedeviled with a major setback in the management of eggs after production resulting from higher supply and lower demand thereby leading to egg- glut. Egg glut over a period of time results in a compromise of egg quality (deterioration and spoilage). The attempt to transport excess eggs from one location to another in times of glut has its attendant problem of egg breakage and deterioration of the internal quality thereby enhancing micro-organism penetration.

 

1.2    Justification

 

Several challenges posed by egg- glut so far have brought losses in place of gain to both small and large-scale producers. Therefore, this research focused on how to manage glut conditions by exploring methods of processing raw eggs to egg powder in order to extend its shelf- life as well as make transportation convenient without fear or risk of wastage. The egg powder would also be a useful resource both in homes and in the confectionery industry.

 

1.3   Objectives

 

The broad objective of this research was to conduct a comparative evaluation of whole egg-powder produced from different processing methods. Specific objectives were to: 

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COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF DIFFERENTLY PROCESSED WHOLE EGG POWDER


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Agriculture in Nigeria has over the last few years received increasing attention with both Federal and State Governments encouraging the Nigerian populace especially the youth to embrace agriculture as a profession and a means out of the current recession (African Economic Outlook, 2012). USDA (2013) as cited by Heise et al. (2015) reported that of the various components of animal husbandry, poultry farming is the most popular and probably lucrative. Nigerian Federal and State governments are investing in poultry production. Egg production plays a vital role in poultry farming and has been on the increase with various government programmes such as “Feed the School Children” encouraging more people to embark on poultry production. Eggs are laid by female animals of many different species, including birds, reptiles, amphibians, mammals, and fish, however among other avian the most popular choice for egg consumption are chicken eggs. They are a cost effective animal protein with a potential to contribute to food and nutrition security and generate rural household livelihoods (Lannotti et al., 2014) and are considered to be nature‟s most nearly perfect food for mankind and are therefore used as the reference protein for assessing protein quality of other proteins. Eggs are also sources of vitamins A, D, B1 (Olomu, 2011). Eggs in general are one of the cornerstones of baked goods and cooking with breads, cakes, bakery mixes, and an assortment of desserts owing much of thei.. Click here for more

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