Experiment was carried out in Calabar which was aimed at
investigating into the direct and indirect effect of solid wastes dumpsite
leachate on growth attributes, yield and yield components and cytology of Water
melon (Citrullus lanatus) in 2018. The leachate used for the study was obtained
from the dumpsite in Calabar and made into four concentrations of 25 ml/L soil;
50 ml/L; 75 ml/L and 100 ml/L using 0 ml/L as control plot and these was used
to treat 1 kg loamy soil in polybag for each plot. The seeds of water melon
were sown directly in the polybags containing the treated soil. The experiment
was laid out in completely randomized design (CRD) in the field and laboratory
with three replications. The growth characteristic evaluated included vine
length (cm), number of leaves per vine, number of branches per vine, leaf
length (cm), leaf width (cm) and leaf area (cm2). Yield and yield components
evaluation in the study included number of flowers per vine, number of fruits
per vine, weight of fruit (kg), circumference of fruits (cm), and number of
seeds per fruit. Cytological aberrations and effects studied included mitotic
index, mitotic inhibition, number of clump cells, total number of aberrant
cells and percentage aberration in the plant cells. The data gathered from the
field and laboratory experiments were collated and subjected to statistical
analysis using the ANOVA procedures and separated significant means using the
Fischers least significant difference (LSD) test at 5% probability level. The
findings revealed that all the attributed evaluated for growth, yield and
cytogenetics all showed an inverse relationship with increasing concentration
of leachate in growth medium. The study revealed that there was absolute adverse
effect of leachate on the growth, yield and cytological attributes of water
melon, Citrullus lanatus in Calabar. The solid wastes dumpsite leachate
directly and adversely affected the vine length which ranged from 17,55 to
88.50cm. Number of leaves per vine varies from 4 to 26, number of branches per
vine was from 2 to 6, leaf length ranged from 5.22 cm to 15.97 cm, leaf width
shows 2.00 cm to 10.30 cm while leaf areas varies from 62.44cm2 to 164.13
cm2 all from control plot to the 100 ml/kg soil treated plot.
Increasing concentration of leachate also adversely affected the number of
water melon fruits per plant from 11 to 1.00, number of fruits per vine from 5
to 0, number of aborted flowers from 8.66 to 26.33, weight of fruits reduces
from 4.60 to 0.00kg, circumference of fruits reduced from 33.33 to 0.00cm, the
number of seeds per fruits decreases from 23 to 0.00 with increasing leachate
in growth medium. It was also gathered from the study that solid wastes
dumpsite leachate contains heavy metals which are injurious to plant cells and
cytological attributes like 100 % mitotic index at 100ml/kg soil concentration
of leachate, 150% mitotic inhibition, high number of clump cells, 10 aberrant
cells and a 100 % cellular aberration. Consequently distorting plant cell cycle
and other biochemical and physiological processes which are generally
controlled by cellular functions. Hence this study is thus advocating for the
proper disposal and management of solid wastes and dumpsite to prevent leachate
from leaching into agricultural lands.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF TABLES
1.3 Aim of
CHAPTER TWO; LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1.1 Botany of Watermelon
2.1.2 Taxonomy of Watermelon
2.1.3 Soil requirement of Watermelon
2.1.4 Cytology of Watermelon
CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
Citrullus Lanatus belongs to the family cucurbitaceae, a
spices of Citrullus wich refers to a fruit plant of a vine – like herb (both
climbers and trailer) and the most common type of melon of the members of the
cucurbits family (Schippers, 2000). Its center of origin has been traced to
both the Kalahari and Sahara deserts in Africa (Jairet, et al; 1996) these
areas have regarded as point of diversification to other parts of the world
Leachate is a widely used term in the environmental sciences
as a hazardous liquid that has dissolved or entrained harmful substances (heavy
metals of degradeable waste) from dumpsite causing a negative impact to plant.
Water melons are available in a wide range of sizes and
shapes, and are common in fruit platters or as a refreshing desert at a picnic
Watermelon is one of the world most important vegetables, as
the crop is reared both for its fruit and the vegetative parts which are highly
nutritious (Schippess, 2011) some works indicates that watermelon do not have a
large fertilizers requirement and that of the crop on fertile land (Schippess,
Watermelon is thought to have originated from South Africa
because it was found growing wild throughout the area and reaches maximum
diversity. It is indigenous to the tropical Africa and as all its genetic
diversities present there from the sweet ones to the bitter ones and tasteless
forms (Oguntala, 2006).
Watermelons are warm season annuals and less tolerant to
cold than other cucurbits like cucumber and cantaloupe. According to Collins,
2007 watermelons are associated with various health benefits as stated below.
Watermelon contain vitamin B which is helpful in producing
instant energy in the budy.
Watermelon are such in water and as such, are helpful in
preventing dehydration. Also, the low calories content of the fruits make it
the best choice for diet – conscious people.
It is an excellent source of vitamin C and vitamin A, it
also provide minerals such as potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), Iron (Fe),
Phosphorus (P), Sodium (Na), and Zinc (Zn) (Collins, 2007).
is undertaken in order to examine the effect of Dumpsite leachate on the
mitotic chromosome of watermelon (Citrullus Lanatus) or how leachate affects
the mitotic chromosome of watermelon.
pollution of underground water by leachate from dumpsite or sewages has
tremendous impact on living organisms. For animals, it has a direct impact on
health causing serious diseases associated with heavy metals from leachate in
plants, the use of polluted underground water by plant through root sorption
provides water and dissolves mineral for photosynthesis. However, the uptake of
leachate polluted water by plants has been associated with various plant
abnormalities and growth deficiency which has not been properly researched
into. The leachate which contains heavy metals has been deleterious to plant
cytogenetic system causing various abnormalities in plant.
based on this background that this research is undertaken to evaluate the
effect of the leachate on watermelon.
1.3 Aim and
is aim at evaluating the effect dumpsite waste. Leachate on the mitotic
chromosome of watermelon (Citrullus Lanatus).
however, the study was designed to achieve the following objectives:
To determine the effect of different concentration of
Leachate on the mitotic index of chromosome of watermelon.
To determine the effect of different concentration of
leachate on the chromosome aberration.
To determine the effect of leachate on the chromosome numbers of watermelon.