Ladley and Lusted (2012), stated that the advancement in the global community technology has brought about several changes involving access of information digitally. Information Technology (IT) has become a key element in economic development and a backbone of knowledge-based economies in terms of operations, quality delivery of services and productivity of services. Therefore, taking advantage of information technologies is an increasing challenge for developing countries. There is now growing evidence that knowledge-driven innovation is decisive factor in the competitiveness of nations, industries, organizations and firms. Organizations like the banking sector have benefited substantially from e-banking, which is one among the IT applications for strengthening the competitiveness. This technology has drastically improved the rate of human satisfaction in diversified fields of work; the objective of this research is to encourage the use of computer in the operation of banking industry. This paper presents the current trend in the application of IT in the banking industries in Nigeria and gives an insight into has quality banking has been enhanced via Computerization. The paper further reveals that the deployment of Computer facilities in the Nigerian Banking industry has brought about fundamental changes in the content and quality of banking business in the country. Harry R. (2011). The Banking industry is an establishment authorized by the government to accept deposits, pay interest, clear cheques, make loan, act as an intermediary in financial transactions and provide other financial services to customers. The old way of banking or other mode of operation was the manual method which involves the full attention of human intervention and certain limitation. Thus, the old means of data processing was not only cumbersome but often frustrating; services obtained in the world were monotonous, poor and expectedly locomotive. Francis W. (2000). In this present 21th century, technologically change is one of the keys confronting banking in diaspora. This technological change has brought about sophisticated computer devices which has not only changes the spectrum of the banking industry but also the content and service delivery. The banking industry has greatly provided an essential leverage to the nation’s economy, through quality banking; economically the world has made a tremendous strides in growth and flexibility in output. And productivity as well as customer empowerment and betterment of people’ standard of living.
Now it is easier to access information compared to the old fashioned way of writing on a piece of paper and placing it in a filing cabinet which can be destroyed by termites. The modern computers can now store so much information. Employee can now check customers account balance instantly, the use of accounting software makes easier in today’s business. The banks in Nigeria like any other organizations, need information technology for their daily operation which includes formation of corporate goals and serving the interest of customers. Stanley and Obeta C. stated that the computer world and the world as global village is becoming all round computerized. Computerization of the banking services is a process in which banking operation is transferred from manually or mechanically operated system to computer based system in fact nearly every aspect of our daily lives is affected by computer technology with wised ranging benefit for the economy and the individual as well. Computer technology is believed to be the tools that assist in the effective and efficient management of banking business. The structure of the Nigerian financial services industry changed drastically during the period under review, brining about significant changes in the market. Within the context of current developments and with increased breadth and depth of competition, the task of identifying the unique characteristics that will enable any bank outperform its peers is becoming more challenging. The trends of event within the industry suggests the need for a mere dynamic and innovation approach to the management of information system especially in the banking industry.
Banking industry is one of the most significant users of financial technologies that employ economic and statistical models to create and value new securities, estimate return distributions, and make portfolio decisions based on financial data. Examples include financial engineering used to create new financial derivatives, credit risk and market risk models employed to improve portfolio management, and modern credit scoring and discrimination analysis used to evaluate credit applications. These financial technologies often depend heavily on the use of IT to collect, process, and disseminate the data, as well as on economic and statistical models to evaluate the data. Technological progress in the banking industry is also important because of the key roles of banks in providing financial, deposit, and payments services to other sectors of the economy. The effect of computerization the internal control system of the banking industry has resulted in a sufficient increase in efficiency and effectiveness of the banking services rendered.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The advent of computer system in all works of life has brought a dramatically change in promotion of jobs and well accuracy in data processing and computation. The computerized method of financial computation has come to stay and the ability of computers to store large volume of data. Due to advancement in information technology, business organizations in our society, particularly in the banking industries are beginning to render expert services by the use of computer in dealing with customers. This study tends to find out the effect brought about by computer in the Nigeria banking operation compared with time when banking was operated manually. This study is concerned with growth and use of computer in “UNION BANK OF NIGERIA, Idah Branch”. This study will examine in details the drawn out suggestions and conditions of the Union Bank of Nigeria, Idah branch with the hope that the bank will take critical evaluation into the suggestion, so that the management even in other various banking sectors may affect some changes and modify its operation with the use of computer. Union Bank of Nigeria is rank as the second established bank in 1917 as a Colonial bank with its first branch in Lagos which is barely 80 years ago; it came in the name of Barclay’s Bank DCO, which is British bank. It was the second commercial bank in the country at that time. The first parent bank was First Bank. From that historical perspective, it gave Union Bank the opportunity to take the advantage of growing the economy in Nigeria and to assist in its development. As a result of this, it has attained the position of one of the top Banks in the country today. As a result of its age, Union Bank has come to possess a large corps of trained professionals and experienced bankers. This has come about because of the policy to invent in manpower. Through its branch policy, Union bank is the second largest in terms of branch policy network with about 280 branches throughout the country. The Union Bank Idah branch was established in June 1993, with one manager one accountant, three officers, two supervisors, three clerks, one messenger and one secretary. Starting with the total number of twelve (12) staff, due to its tremendous strive, the staff increased to twenty two (22) as at 2001, it has also increased in the numbers of staff from 122 to 36 staff presently.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Conventional banking system started in Nigeria in 1952. Since then, the industry has witnessed a lot of regulatory and institutional advances. The use of computer in banks has greatly propelled reliable services rendered to customers and bankers. With all these advantages of the use of computer, there are still problems surrounding the operation of the bank with the use of computer to deal with customers. Some of these problems and prospects of the growth and use of computer in banking industry are stated below:- Poor communication as a result of not being able to link with other banks (i.e unstable network connectivity) Inability to handle large volume of transaction which leads to queuing and delay in transaction. Inaccurate data entries which leads to fatal computation Gross inefficiency in the bank’s management of each sub-department internal control system due to untimely information and bulkiness of its duties and operation. Cyber crimes are perpetrated through the use of e-mails and other internet means.