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THE IMPACT OF TIME MANAGEMENT IN EMPLOYEE PRODUCTIVITY IN ORGANIZATION



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THE IMPACT OF TIME MANAGEMENT IN EMPLOYEE PRODUCTIVITY IN ORGANIZATION



CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1   THE MEANING OF TIME MANAGEMENT
There are various definitions of time management just as we have various author. All the same, the underlying consent is basically the same as others see time management as having to do with planning, organized, directing and controlling of time for productivity.

Drake (1971) sees time management in terms of when work is divided into specialized limits in place lump according to specification and on schedule.

Time, he concluded has not only been used to ensure productivity but also to improve it.

Dunham (1995) says time management as a essential skill at all level of experience responsibility.

It is an individual team and white school requirement for effective work performance this could result to clearer thinking better forward planning and better quality work.

Furthermore Adesina (1975) says that when executive plan direct and concludes up personal and organization satisfaction it can be said that time has been made use of to improve output. This implies that it gives room for effective and efficient work.

Added to the above Adesina (1975) says it can be seen therefore that management needs proper planning and organizations needs to have the consciousness of the fact that there is end to when it could yield profit and determine one’s future.

Cordiner (1990) says time is an assets that all competitors share in common, the fact that management of time could be one of the decision element in attaining organizational objectives especially that time boarders in productivity it follows that time can be wasted or conserved. This tendency is the reason responsible or the emphasis on the need for effective management of time on employees productivity in an organization at Kaduna State Universal Basic Education Board.

In other words, to manage our  time means to effectively manage our activities  in line  with our action  plan which is  schedule within a defined time frame  and  purpose  geared towards achieving  the organizational goals.

2.2   ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT OF TIME MANAGEMENT
Even though it is possible to trace the historical development of time management right from creating the modern dimension of the concept actually owes much to be intellectual contribution of Fredrick Taylor (1917 – 1986). Expatriating on Taylor’s like Fayol efforts to reflect time utilization, Cole (1986) maintains that Taylor was one of the early practical management theorist born in Boston Massachusetts in  1956, he spent the greater part of his life writing on the problems of achieving greater efficiency on the shop floor worker himself and later as a manager. He begins his career as an apprentice in engineering. He moved to mutual steel company where in the cause of years rose from labourer to shop super intendent it was during this time that Taylor’s idea of “scientific management” was born.

Taylor pass his  idea to other   which he achieve through writing most notably “the principle of scientific management” from employee’s point of view efficient of working  method  was the dominant issue.

The gathering pace of the industrial revolution in the western world had given rise to new factories, new plant and machinery labour was plentiful. The problem was now to organize these element into efficient and profitable operations.

It was against this backdrop that Taylor developed his idea. He was interested in the efficient of working methods. He realize that the key to such problem laid in the systematic analysis of work experience both as a worker and as a manager had convinced him that few, if any worker put more that the  minimal effort into their  daily work.

He therefore described this tendency as soldering, that is man’s natural tendency to take things easy and systematic soldering that is man’s natural tendency to take things easy and systematic soldering that is the deliberate and organization restructuring of the rate by the employee.

In its application to management the scientific approach require the following  steps:

  1. Develop a scientific for each operation to  replace opinion and rules  of thumb.
  2. Determine accurately from the science the correct   time and method for each job.
  3. Set up a suitable organization to take all responsibility from the workers that cooperate with them.
  4. Accept that management staff it self is being governed by the science develop for each operation and surrender it arbitrary power over the workers that is corporate with them.

Taylor says that if changes were to take place at the shop level than fact would be done by studying the job of a sample of especially skilled workers that adoption of the scientific approach would lead to increase productivity.

2.3   TOOLS FOR MANAGING TIME
a. The use of productivity calendar.
The use of productivity calendar is a schedule of time (period and date) and the special activities to be accomplished by a person. The following are the required you need to take when preparing a productive calendar.

  1. Make Specific Plans: some activities must be planed for specific time committed time might be activities or appointment over which you have no control. This might include department/sectional meetings, appraisal meeting visiting of client/project site attending to customer’s special request conducting market survey.
  2. Any of the above listed commitments must be blocked in the productivity calendar which can be planned on hourly, daily, weekly or monthly basis.

Plan ahead what you would need from other and give reasonable deadline to other people for information of material you will need from them.

b. ARRANGE WHAT YOU HAVE TO DO IN ORDER OF PRIORITY
i. Indicating your needs/goals is the basis for setting priorities.
ii. Make the priorities simple enough to be adopted to your various activities and circumstances.

  1. You must have several priorities so that the value of each  can be determined by weighing  it against the other.
  2. Keep what you need in a place where you can find it easily.
  3. Evaluate periodic result to know how much you are working towards your goals or deviating against it.
  4. Your stock of energy (physical emotional intellectual determine how  well you see your time)

C. Understand your body and mind so as to know when best to do what and select activities that minimize interpersonal stress. This involve the use of a biological clock this is finding your best time.

Your biological clock is different from your mechanical clock the mechanical clock is geared to the rotation of the earth on its axis and revolution of the earth around the sun. The biological clock is geared to cycles within your clock which are biorthyms

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THE IMPACT OF TIME MANAGEMENT IN EMPLOYEE PRODUCTIVITY IN ORGANIZATION


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There are various definitions of time management just as we have various author. All the same, the underlying consent is basically the same as others see time management as having to do with planning, organized, directing and controlling of time for productivity. Drake (1971) sees time management in terms of when work is divided into specialized limits in place lump according to specification and on schedule. Time, he concluded has not only been used to ensure productivity but also to improve it. Dunham (1995) says time management as a essential skill at all level of experience responsibility. It is an individual team and white school requirement for effective work performance this could result to clearer thinking better forward planning and better quality work. Furthermore Adesina (1975) says that when executive plan direct and concludes up personal and organization satisfaction it can be said that time has been made use of to improve output. This implies that it gives room for effective and efficient work. Added to the above Adesina (1975) says it can be seen therefore that management needs proper planning and organizations needs to have the consciousness of the fact that there is end to when it could yield profit and determine one’s future. Cordiner (1990) says time is an assets that all competitors share in common, the fact that management of time could be one of the decision element in attaining organizational objectives especially that time boarders in productivi.. Click here for more

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