Translate this page

the notion of the human person in kierkegaard vis-à-vis african i...

THE NOTION OF THE HUMAN PERSON IN KIERKEGAARD VIS-À-VIS AFRICAN INDIVIDUAL



This research project material is available: THE NOTION OF THE HUMAN PERSON IN KIERKEGAARD VIS-À-VIS AFRICAN INDIVIDUAL



Download Complete Research Project Material on THE NOTION OF THE HUMAN PERSON IN KIERKEGAARD VIS-À-VIS AFRICAN INDIVIDUAL



Project Category:
Type: Project Topics | Project Topics and Materials | List of Project Topics | Research Project Materials | Journals | Thesis | Articles | Online Project Materials | Business Plan | Final year project topic| Format: Ms Word| Attribute: Documentation Only| Pages: 65 Pages| Chapters: Complete Research work from Chapter 1 to 5; All chapters | Price: ₦ 5,000.00



Call or whatsapp: +2347063298784 or email: allprojectmaterials.com

Download Post (MsWord)


Download Post (PDF)


Download complete Chapters



THE NOTION OF THE HUMAN PERSON IN KIERKEGAARD VIS-À-VIS AFRICAN INDIVIDUAL



CHAPTER ONE

1.0             INTRODUCTION

There are diverse understanding of the concept of the human person among thinkers and philosophers. In this regard, Arthur C. Danto affirms that “Neither in common usage, nor in philosophy has there been a univocal concept of ‘person”[1].

But basically, the English word ‘person’ is derived from the Latin word, ‘persona,’ which can be traced to the Greek ‘prosopon,’ which in its original sense denotes the ‘mask’ worn by an actor. Later it came to refer to the role played by the actor or the dramatist, and finally to the human being as an actor on the stage of life; as Willaim Shakespeare says: Life is a stage where each person is an actor. Cicero used the term ‘person’ to denote an assumed appearance, a mark of distinction or dignity or a sum total of personal qualities.

Legally speaking, person denotes a subject of law, a being bound by law. This is evident in the Roman legal system where person designates cives Romani-the Roman citizen, a man who enjoys the citizenship (civitatis) or freedom (libertatis). In this sense, person refers to that being that possesses certain rights and conditions that make him capable of exercising them.


Nevertheless, the advent of the existentialist style of philosophizing brought about a kind of ‘Copernican revolution’ to the understanding of the human person in the history of Western philosophy. Kierkegaard, the “father of modern existentialism and the first European philosopher who bore the existentialist label”[2] paid particular attention to the concept of the human person. Just like Heidegger who pointed out the forgetfulness of ‘Being’ in traditional philosophy occasioned by the influence of science, Kierkegaard reacts against the forgetfulness of the concrete problems of the “thinking subject” in the history of thought. The early Greek philosophers were physicists, who had no direct concern about the human person. It was Socrates who first directed the attention of philosophy to the issues about man himself. After Socrates, the concrete problems of the human person were forgotten again until the dawn of existentialism.

Existentialism has been described “not as a ‘philosophy’ but rather as ‘a style of philosophizing’”[3]. It is a style that may lead those who adopt it to very divergent convictions about the world and man’s life in it. This diversity is obviously evidenced by a study of the thought of such existentialist thinkers like Kierkegaard, Sartre and Heidegger. Kierkegaard believes in the existence of God, Sartre denies the existence of God, whereas Heidegger neither affirms nor denies the existence of God. However, there are some strings of similarities in their general considerations of the business of philosophy and also in the understanding of the concept of the human person.

The first significant common feature of the existentialist philosophers is that they

begin from man rather than from nature. Existentialism is a philosophical movement concerned with the subject rather than the object. This is unlike idealism, which starts from the subject only as the “thinking subject”. For the existentialists, “the subject is the existent in the whole range of his existing”[4]. He is not only a thinking subject but also an initiator of action and a center of feeling. With regard to this, Sartre says, “Man’s existence precedes his essence.”5 He highlights that “man first of all exists, encounters himself, surges up in the world and defines himself afterwards”6. Thus, the existentialists, unlike the traditional Western metaphysicians concentrate on problems that are directly related to human existence rather than on the abstract or speculative issues.

In relation to the “existing subject”7, the existentialists treat such themes as freedom, decision, responsibility, finitude, guilt, alienation, despair, death, the emotional life of man, problems of language, history, society, and being. Some of these matters, which are of great interest to the existentialists, have hitherto scarcely been regarded as appropriate themes for philosophy at all. However, it is in the exploration and development of these themes, drawn mostly from the affective elements in personal life that the existentialist philosophers have made their most important and characteristic contributions to philosophy.

The African equally has a well-developed view of the “existing subject”. For the African, the “existing subject’, that is, the human person is not alone in the exercise of his freedom, decision, choice, responsibility and so on. He is a being with-others. He is never an Island in the world of things and persons. Hence, John Mbiti has to say of the African man: “I am because we are; and since we are, therefore I am”8. Africans have a unitary world-view. These imply that while Kierkegaard’s individual, the “existing subject,” is highly individualistic, Africans make a further step of considering the individual not just as a selfish existing subject, but more as a subject existing among other subjects. In Heideggerian parlance, the African considers the human person as a “being-with”. It is this rather conflicting notion of the human person in Kierkegaard and the African that forms the crux of this investigation.

 

1.1       STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The notion of the human person has been a matter of serious concern to the existentialist philosophers. But prior to the emergence of this movement, philosophers have neglected the matters concerning the concrete existing man. The pre-Socratic philosophers concentrated on the cosmological aspect of the world. It was Socrates who came and for the first time, directed the attention of philosophy to man. His belief is that all the physical existent exist only in relation to the existing subject. And this is correct. But no sooner had Socrates gone out of sight than the concrete problems of man in his environment were forgotten. Philosophers deviated from the existing individual to the physical sciences. Philosophers over the ages have been philosophizing on abstract principles that have no direct relevance to the existing individual. This led to the depersonalize, dehumanization and objectification of the human person. Man was no more regarded as a dignified being but rather considered in relation to the function he was able to perform. This frightening erosion of human values and the abysmal depreciation of the dignity of the human person reached its apogee at the dawn of the twentieth century technological advancement. To be particular, the absence of the ‘person’ as an existent in the philosophy of Hegel woke Kierkegaard from his ignoble slumber and brought forth the birth of existentialism.

Hence, it was kierkegaard’s rebellion against Hegel’s dissolute pantheistic contempt for the individual that became the ‘point de depart’ of contemporary existentialism. Thus, Kierkegaard insists on “studying man in his radical singularity and individuality, a man who is constantly faced with making momentous decisions that spell the difference between authentic and inauthentic existence”9. He considers the individual’s lived experience in its unrepeatable uniqueness. Existentialism therefore abhors any attempt at objectification or universalization of that which eminently is singular and belongs to the individual.

Now, there is a relevant question to be asked: Does the Kierkegaardian existentialism have any room for the other individuals? Or, does every individual have to face his world of existence alone? The attempts to answer the questions will definitely brings us face to face with either the convergence or divergence between kierkegaardian and the African notions of the human person. How to solve this problem is the basic problem we are posed to grapple with.

1.2             PURPOSE OF STUDY

The purpose of this study is a comparative analysis between kierkegaardian view of the human person and the African view. This, when done, will hopefully go a long way in helping us know what an authentic person should be. The work attempts an integration of the Western view of the human person represented by Kierkegaard, and the African conception. Hence, rejecting the depersonalization, objectification and dehumanization of man, we come to know really what the existing individual actually is.

1.3       SCOPE OF STUDY

This work is not going to exhaust all that Kierkegaard treated on the existing individual. But as space allows, his major view of the individual as a free human agent who is able to choose his actions and take responsibility for his choices and decisions will be considered. This will be juxtaposed with the African notion of freedom, choice and decision of the existing individual.

1.3             METHODOLOGY OF THE WORK

The problem before us is not a metaphysical one, but an existential one. Therefore, I will apply the method of existential and comparative critical analysis of what the authentic self should be-drawing from Kierkegaardian and African conceptions. Man will be considered not only as a thinking subject, but also as an existing subject.

1.5       DIVISION OF WORK

This work is divided into five chapters. The first chapter tries to give the general introduction to the work. Herein, the problem to be tackled, the purpose, scope, methodology and the division of the work are given. In the second chapter, we shall attempt the review of literature on the notion of the human person from the inception of critical philosophy in Ancient Greece till the contemporary age. An exposé of Kierkegaardian notion of the human person is given in chapter three, whereas the African concept of the individual in highlighted in chapter four. In chapter five, we shall attempt the juxtaposition of the Kierkegaardian and the African person. This will be an evaluation of both views and finally, a conclusion on what the authentic self should be from the perspective of the researcher.


[1] A.C.      Danto, “Person” in P.Edwards (ed.), The Enclycopeadia of Philosophy, Vol. 6, (London: Collier Macmillan Pub., 1967), p. 110.

[2] J. Macquarrie, Existentialism, (Great Britain: The Chaucer Press Limited, 1980), p. 53

[3] Ibid., p. 14

[4] Ibid., p. 15

5 loc. Cit

6 loc. Cit

7 This is the existentialist term for the human person. 

8 J. Mbiti, African Religions and philosophy, (New York: Doubleday and company, 1970), p. 141.

9 F. J., Lescoe, Existentialism: with or without God, (New York: father and brothers of St. Paul

Publications, 1974), p. 11.

Citation - Reference

All Project Materials Inc. (2020). THE NOTION OF THE HUMAN PERSON IN KIERKEGAARD VIS-À-VIS AFRICAN INDIVIDUAL . Available at: https://researchcub.info/department/paper-6131.html. [Accessed: ].

THE NOTION OF THE HUMAN PERSON IN KIERKEGAARD VIS-À-VIS AFRICAN INDIVIDUAL


Delivery Assurance: This Project material is delivered within 15-30 Minutes. Click below to download complete material.


Download Complete Project Material

Call: +2347063298784

Hire a Writer

Department

Search Word Tags:


A Review on the notion of the human person in kierkegaard vis, à, vis african individual , person, human, this, research journals and thesis, researchcub.info, philosophy project topics.
There are diverse understanding of the concept of the human person among thinkers and philosophers. In this regard, Arthur C. Danto affirms that “Neither in common usage, nor in philosophy has there been a univocal concept of ‘person”[1]. But basically, the English word ‘person’ is derived from the Latin word, ‘persona,’ which can be traced to the Greek ‘prosopon,’ which in its original sense denotes the ‘mask’ worn by an actor. Later it came to refer to the role played by the actor or the dramatist, and finally to the human being as an actor on the stage of life; as Willaim Shakespeare says: Life is a stage where each person is an actor. Cicero used the term ‘person’ to denote an assumed appearance, a mark of distinction or dignity or a sum total of personal qualities. .. Click here for more

THE NOTION OF THE HUMAN PERSON IN KIERKEGAARD VIS-À-VIS AFRICAN INDIVIDUAL - Research Journals and Thesis - Researchcub.info

Excellent and Professional research project topics, ideas and materials Website - researchcub.info

Undergraduate Project Topics, economics project topics, marketing project topics, business administration project topics, engineering project topics, computer science project topics, banking & finance project topics, education project topics, law project topics, sciences project topics, public administration project topics, political science project topics, mathematics project topics, medical science project topics, mass communication project topics, research projects, geology project topics, marketing project topics, agriculture project topics, Browse Thousands of Final Year Project Topics, hire a writer, Research Works and Materials, Project topics and materials in Nigeria, Undergraduate Project Topics, Research Works and Materials, research topics, research project materials, complete project materials, computer science project material, free project topics, complete projects, accounting topics, small business topics, entrepreneurship topics, project materials, Nigerian undergraduate projects, business administration projects, computer science topics and projects, MBA Nigerian project topics, human resources, small businesses, entrepreneurship projects, economics projects, impacts projects, effect projects, university projects, polytechnic projects, investigate projects, political science projects, mass communication projects, project topics, human resource projects, education projects, French topics, project analysis, French projects, project tips, project abstract, project proposals, project bibliography, project reference, project seminar, forex, TSA, treasury single account, currency, naira, devaluation, undergraduate projects, final project research, marketing project topics, statistics project topics, mathematics project topics, statistics, mathematics, research projects, project thesis, labour force theses, NCE, OND, HND, BTECH, BSC, MBA, MSC, English projects, linguistic project topics, Free Project topics and materials in Nigeria, research topics, reseach project materials, computer science project material, free, complete, accounting topics, small business topics, materials, nigeria projects, business administration projects, computer science topics and projects, MBA nigeria project topics, human resources, small business, entrepreneurship projects, economics projects, impact projects, effects projects, training, budgets, ghana, university, polytechnic, browse Free project materials and topics in Nigeria, accounting and finance project materials, business administration project materials and topics, human resources, entrepreneurship, computer science and engineering project materials and topics, Accounting project topics, Accounting project topics and materials, Agricultural Economics Project Topics and Materials, Agricultural Science Projects topics and materials, All Project topics and materials, Architecture Project topics and materials, Aviation project topics and materials, Banking & Finance Projects topics and materials, Biology project and materials, Building project topics and materials, Business Administration & Management Projects topics and materials, Chemical Engineering Project Topics and materials, Civil Engineering Projects topics and materials, Communication & mass communication art project topics and materials, Computer Engineering Project Topics and materials, Computer Science Projects topics and materials, Criminology project topics and materials, Economics Research Projects topics and materials, Education Project Topics and Materials, Electrical Engineering Projects and materials, English Education & English Language Project topics and materials, Food Science project topics and materials, Geology Project Topics and materials, Guidance Counseling Project Topics and materials, History project topics and materials, Home Economics Project Topics and Materials, Human Resource Projects topics and Materials, Industrial Chemistry Projects topics and materials, Insurance Projects topics and materials, Law project topics and materials, Library and information science project topics and materials, Marine and Transport management project topics and materials, Marketing Projects topics and materials, Mathematics project topics and materials, Medical Sciences Project Topics and materials, Microbiology project topics and materials, Nursing and Midwifery project topics, Nursing and Midwifery project topics and materials, Optometry or nursing project topics and materials, Petroleum Engineering project topics and materials, Pharmacy project topics and materials, Philosophy project topics and materials, Photography project topics and materials, Physical and Health Education project topics and materials, Physiology project topics and materials, Political science project topics and materials, Project topics and materials, Psychology project topics and materials, Random project, Religious and Cultural Studies Project Topics and Materials, Sociology and Anthropology Project topics and materials, Sociology Project Topics and materials, Tourism project topics and materials, Vocational education project topics and materials THE NOTION OF THE HUMAN PERSON IN KIERKEGAARD VIS-À-VIS AFRICAN INDIVIDUAL -person- human- this- Research Journals and Thesis | Researchcub.info