1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY.
Zimbabwe has an adult literacy rate of
approximately 89% which is among the highest in Africa (EFA Global
Monitoring Report, 2007). However, this has been declining considering
it was once 92% in the early 90‟s. This makes Zimbabweans insightful
when it comes to issues concerning education. The recent years has many
adults pursuing further education to improve different productive skills
and credentials that are needed in the shrinking job market. In an
attempt to acquire these skills many adults attend evening classes. Some
want to acquire basic education, for example, General Certificate
Education Ordinary level. The General Certificate Education Ordinary
Level has the grading A, B, C, D, E, with C being the lowest pass and A
being the highest pass. The Zimbabwean requirements for a full
certificate is five ‟O‟ Levels, which include English Language. The
recent years have seen a pass in Mathematics also made compulsory. This
has led to many adults who do not have a full certificate going back to
school. In order to cater for these needs the Ministry of Education
Sports and Culture in Zimbabwe has set a programme in public schools
where „O‟ Level is being taught after normal working hours. These
students are called private candidates. It has been observed that the
pass rate of private candidates is low compared to those attending
conventional school. Their results show that some candidates register
but do not write the examination.
Lemmer and Dekker (1993) clearly state
that no factor is more important for positive school outcomes than the
children‟s perception of the teacher‟s attitude toward them and
expectations. They claim that when students believe that their teachers
care about them, see them as competent, respect their views and desire
their success, they tend to work toward fulfilling those high
expectations. Teachers‟ expectations of pupils‟ performance and
abilities can operate as a self-fulfilling prophecy within a classroom
(Lemmer and Dekker, 1993). There are tendencies for the performance of
the pupils to conform to the expectations declared by the teacher.
According to Shalveson and Marsh (1986), students‟ attitude towards
their ability to influence their academic outcome does affect their
performance. Schneider et al. (2012) argues that students‟ feelings,
attitudes, and perceptions they hold about their academic ability that
is, academic self-concept, does affect their performance. When students
have low academic self-concept they shift to self-handicapping. This
method shifts blame away from the individual, and allows them to have
excuses for failure. Students are more likely to achieve high marks when
they believe in their own capacities and do not feel anxious about the
learning process, (Schneider et al., 2012). Shalveson and Marsh (1986)
also states that Self-efficacy in mathematics affects students‟
willingness to take on challenging tasks and the amount of effort and
persistence. Bandura (1994) cites that students were asked to what
extent they believe in their own ability to handle learning situations
in mathematics effectively, overcoming difficulties tackling them.
Results showed that self-efficacy and self-concept did affect
performance and was also a key impact on motivation.
Adult literacy center is a place where
adults are taught how to read and write. The goal of the Adult Literacy
Center (ALC) is to improve literacy in adults, resulting in enhanced
self-esteem, daily living, and life-long learning. Utilizing volunteers
and new technologies, the ALC improves the quality of adults' lives by
helping them learn to read, write and comprehend. Adult literacy center
was created to help uneducated people in Ado Odo Ota local government
area, Ogun state.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM.
Adults are faced with various
difficulties in their learning. Age has a lot to do with educational
performance, it is easy for young people to understand and assimilate
fast than adults. Therefore, there is need to develop instructional
teaching aids for easy teaching of Adult learners in adult literacy
centers in Ado Odo Ota local government area, Ogun state. This is
expected to improve positive learning attitude among students, and
performance of adult learners in Ado odo ota local government area, Ogun
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY.
The main objective of this study is to
research the effect of the use of instructional teaching aids on
learning attitudes of adult learners in adult literacy centers, Ado Odo
Ota local government area, Ogun state.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS.
1. What is the meaning of adult learning?
2. What is the meaning of learning attitude?
3. What is the attitudes of adult learners towards learning in Adult literacy centers?
4. How can adult learning be improved?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY.
This study will affect teachers of adult
learners in adult literacy centers, to identify the effects of
instructional teaching aids on learning and performance of their
students. This study will also improve the learning attitudes of adult
learners positively in adult literacy centers, Ado Odo Ota local
government area, Ogun state.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY.
This study focus on the effect of the
use of instructional teaching aids on the performance of adult learners
in adult literacy centers, Ado Odo Ota local government area, Ogun
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EFA Global monitoring Report (2007). Education for all by 2015- will make it? Oxford: Oxford University.
Lemmer E. and Dekker E. (1993). Critical issues in modern education. Durban: Butterworth.
Precious Ndlovu and Wisdom Moyo (2013).
Factors affecting performance of adults in adult and continuing
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L.M. (2012). Applied Social psychology understanding and addressing
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