1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The world keeps advancing as time flies and this proves the need for
education, in other to meet the advancement of civilization to ensure
sustainable development (Taiwo 1980:p68). Education plays a pivotal role
to the economy of any nation and the world at large. There will be
about 3% increase in a nation’s economy with a positive approach on the
state of education, according to World Bank. Education exposes
individuals to a full knowledge of their fundamental human rights to
avoid being trampled on (World Bank, 2002). When a nation’s intellectual
resources are well utilized, it will aid development of the society.
Post-primary education plays a significant role in the social,
mental, and career being of a child. What a child is taught in his
post-primary education goes a long way in giving that child a sound
education and career. A quality Post-primary education adds meaning to
the growth of the society. The rate at which students in Nigeria migrate
from primary to secondary school is about 88%, which is quite
impressive; but the problem faced by most of these students is lack of
continuity based on some factors.
Spatial distribution of post-primary schools is a part of human
rights and development for the economic growth of a nation, though the
spatial distribution of post-primary education in Nigeria is uneven. It
is therefore pertinent to bear in mind that educational opportunities
are equally measured based on spatial distribution.
In the past, some sub-Saharan African countries spatial distribution
of post-primary education was mostly used by the elites as weapons to
suppress some people in the country. Due to this, some parts of the
country stand to gain from some educational presence than the other, and
this is still prevalent in Nigeria.
Spatial distribution of post-primary schools involves the location
(proximity between home and school), the cost of tuition fees and the
cost of transportation. Sustainable development is achieved when human
and land resources are in the same spatial context; though the invention
of science and technology has actually helped to tackle the challenge
of physical barrier. Tobler’s first law of geography asserts that there
is a high level of relationship between things that are close, to those
that are not (Tobler, 1979).
The spatial challenge of post-primary education is often times
neglected and this has negatively affected the young minds of the
country and the growth of the country as well. This challenge has
equally cut-off some youths who would like to obtain quality education,
most especially the rural dwellers. Some Nigerian children have to walk
long distance to acquire quality education.
However, the purpose of this study is to seek for means with which
these problems can be tackled; a comparative analysis of the spatial
distribution of posts primary schools in Nigeria.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Recently, the level of post-primary school drop-outs in Nigeria is
becoming alarming; as this is tied the barrier of spatial distribution
of post-primary schools’ children. Many students are discouraged from
going to school because the waste a lot of time and money going to
school. A school located very far away from a student can make the
student imbibe the bad attitude of lateness; which can with time become a
Another problem is the cost of transportation to school located at a
long distance. Students whose schools are far away from home spend so
much on transportation.
However, poverty is another challenge of spatial distribution of
post-primary schools in Nigeria as 110 million Nigerians live in abject
poverty (Osinbajo, cited from vanguard 2015). Many Nigerian parents
struggle to send their children to school, talk less of when they have
to take care of transportation expenses as most of them cannot afford
money to send their wards to the boarding house.
These are some of the problems that spurred the researcher to take up this study.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The major objective of this study is to carry out a comparative
analysis of the spatial distribution of post-primary schools in Nigeria.
Other specific objectives include:
a) To determine the factors responsible for spatial distribution of post-primary schools in Nigeria.
b) To examine the effects of spatial distribution of post-primary education on the economy.
c) To examine the impact of spatial distribution of post-primary education on the performance of students.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following research questions are generated to guide this study:
a) What are the factors responsible for spatial distribution of post-primary schools in Nigeria?
b) Are the effects of spatial distribution of post-primary education on the economy?
c) What are the impacts of spatial distribution of post-primary education on the performance of students?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H0: There are no factors responsible for spatial distribution of post-primary schools in Nigeria.
H1: There are factors responsible for spatial distribution of post-primary schools in Nigeria.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study is meant to inform and educate school administrators and
the government that there is need to revisit the spatial distribution of
post-primary schools, as most Nigerian students travel long distance to
have access to education.
This study will be of immense benefit to other researchers who intend
to know more on this topic and can also be used by non-researchers to
build more on their work. This study contributes to knowledge and could
serve as a guide for other work or study.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
This study is restricted to a comparative analysis of the spatial distribution of post-primary schools in Nigeria.
Limitations of study
- 1. Financial constraint-
Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in
sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in
the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
- 2. Time constraint- The
researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic
work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
- COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS: Is a study that compares and
contrasts two things: two life insurance policies, two sports figures,
two presidents, etc. The study can be done to find the crucial
differences between two very similar things or the similarities between
two things that appear to be different on the surface.
- SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION: Is the arrangement of a
phenomenon across the Earth's surface and a graphical display of such an
arrangement is an important tool in geographical and environmental
It is also the study of things in terms of their physical locations;
basically we're asking where things occur and how they relate to each
other. It's a useful field of analysis. After all, everything happens
- POST-PRIMARY SCHOOLS: The post-primary education
sector comprises secondary, vocational, community and comprehensive
schools. ... Post-primary education consists of a three-year Junior
Cycle (lower secondary), followed by a two or three year Senior Cycle
(upper secondary), depending on whether the optional Transition Year
(TY) is taken.
Taiwo CO. The Nigerian education system: Past present and future Lagos. Thomas Nelson (Nigeria) Ltd.1980; 66-90.
World Bank Human development sector for African Region, Uganda post-primary education, 2002; 15-60.
Tobler W., (1970) "A computer movie simulating urban growth in the Detroit region". Economic Geography, 46(2): 234-240.
Osinbajo. Y; (2015) “An article on Over 100m Nigerians living below poverty line” Vanguard Nigerian newspaper, August 20th, 2015.