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This research project material is available: DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF AN OFFICE ENTERPRISE SYSTEM


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An office cannot function effectively without a management system. This system manages and controls the office and helps office to work smoothly.

Office management system works with an office manager who will help plan, organize and control the office in order to achieve the goals of the organization (Bliss: 1998). He helps in determining the manpower requirements, recruiting, selecting, and training people to perform the office work efficiently and effectively.                                                               The manager acts as the line executive for his own department and staff executive or advisor for other departments (Muhamed: 1981).                                                  He selects, design and plan the office layout so as to ensure smooth flow of work. He is also in charge for safeguarding and maintenance of building and other assets of office and observes the rules, procedures and policies of the management within the office, designs and improves system, procedures and methods. He maintains good relation with the outsiders or general public in order to create good image for the organization. He has to influence, inspire, and guide subordinate and get the best out of the office staff. He is responsible for procuring suitable machines, equipment, furniture, stationery and other suppliers and for maintaining good working conditions so that efficacy can be increased.


Concept of office management

An organization without office is unthinkable. Office management is needed in all organizations. It manages support services of various departments in the organization. No organization can run effectively without efficient office management. Office management is needed at all levels of management.

Elements Of office management

1. Jobs: Office management gets the office jobs done. The jobs are management of information, records, supplies, properties and people.

2. People: The jobs are done by people. Human resource management is an important aspect of office management.

3. Functions: Office management performs management functions. They are planning, directing, and controlling.

4. Objectives: Office management achieves office objectives which are:

a. Efficient provision of services to other departments

b. Coordination of activities of various activities

c. Efficient performance of office work.

Office management is concerned with smooth and efficient performance of office work and It includes planning, organizing, human resource management, directing and controlling functions to achieve office objectives.


2.2.1 The concept of an office management system

Office management system is a branch of management which is concerned with the services of obtaining,recordingand analyzing information of planning and communication, by means of which the management of a business safeguards its assets, promotes its affairs and achieves its objectives (Blessed: 1990). By that definition, office basicallyperforms five types of activities which are: receiving information, recording information, preparing and arranging information, communicating information, safeguarding assets.

Traditional Office management functions were limited to basic clerical servicesand to office personnel, but now officemanagementhas changed significantly due to corporate downsizing,the economy, and technology (Goodwill: 2001). The main responsibility is to manage the organizational informationby enablingthem to enhance their productivity. In the future, this function and services will become even more systems oriented and will use even greater amounts of technology.

Objectives of AOM

1. Maximize individual and unit productivity.

2.To provide effective management of the organization’s information.

3.To maintain reasonable quantity and quality standards.

4.To develop effective work process and procedures.

5.To provide a satisfactory physical and mental working environment for the organization’s employees.6.Assigned duties and responsibilities of Office staff

7.To develop communication line.                                           

8.To help employees maintain a high level of work effectiveness.9.To enhance the effective supervision of office personnel.10.To assure the efficient and proper use of specialized office equipment.

Importance of office management

Office management as an art of guiding and directing personal or employees in the organization in the use of various means such as machines equipment, office forms, manual, methods etc has the following importance;

Helps in Achievement of Targets: Targets or goals are results in quantitative terms which are to be achieved in a given time. Management makes people realize the goals and directs their efforts towards the achievement of these goals.

Optimum Use of Resources: Management helps in utilization of resources effectively. Scarce resources arc put to use optimistically by managers. Managers bring about coordination and integration of various resources. It is management which guides the personnel in office in the use of resources. Minimization of Costs: Office costs can only be reduced under the guidance and control of efficient management. Office Management is concerned with doing the office activities in a best and cheapest way. Cost reduction is one of the objects of management which can be achieved through work simplification and mechanization (Bola). Through better planning, sound organization and effective control, management enables a concern to reduce costs and prepare an enterprise to face cut throat competition.Smooth Flow of Work:Uninterrupted flow of work is only possible if there is proper planning and control. Management ensures efficient and smooth flow of work.Helps in Maintaining Office Efficiency:Management helps in maintaining efficiency in an office. A manager not only performs and produces results, but also does it in the most efficient manner so as to contribute towards profit generation (Adenuga: 1990).

·        Managing Survival and Growth:Management has to play an important role in keeping the organization alive. Change in technology and methods must be anticipated and adapted for survival and growth. It is only management which can do so and moulds the enterprise in such a changing environment.

·        Provides Innovation:Innovation is finding different and better method of doing existing work. To plan and manage innovation, management has to play an important role. Suggestions from customers, information from salesmen, and close watch on competitor’s activities provide source of innovation.

·        Helps in Retaining Talent and Inculcating Sense of Loyalty in Office Staff:

Efficient management helps in retaining talented and hard working employees by providing them comfortable work environment. Manager must motivate his employees by recognizing and appreciating their talents.

·        Provides Leadership:Management provides leadership by influencing and guiding office personnel. Managers influence his subordinates to work willingly for achieving organizational goals.

·        Managing Change:Importance of office management is that it helps in planning the change and introducing it at the right time and in the right manner. Due to change in technology methods, work procedures etc. have to be changed for efficiency and economy. People resist change due to lack of understanding the reasons for change and lack of training in new methods. Management helps in minimizing resistance of people and acts as a change-agent.



The management theory of Max Weber

The Max Weber theory of management, sometimes called bureaucratic management theory, is built on principles outlined by Frederick Taylor in his scientific management theory. Like Taylor, Weber advocated a system based on standardized procedures and a clear chain of command. Weber stressed efficiency, as did Taylor, but also warned of the danger of emphasizing technology at the expense of emotion.

Systems theory

Systems Theory is based upon the analytic division of the natural world into environment and systems. This division constitutes the major foundational, axiomatic philosophical assumption of Systems Theory. On the one hand there is an infinitely complex ‘environment’, and on the other hand there are self-replicating systems. Systems are engaged in processing information. Systems also model the environment, and can respond adaptively to environmental changes. The planet earth presumably began as pure ‘environment’ with only simple, self-organizing physical and chemical systems which arose by the chance contiguity of components and energy.  For instance, the water cycle is a system by which water molecules associate and dissociate in processes such as evaporation and condensation. More complex systems can only be built incrementally, so that over time, simple physical and chemical systems must have evolved into complex biological systems such as those observable and biological systems eventually led to the social systems generated by human culture. A system might therefore include entities such as a single cell, a multicellular organism such as human or social organizations of varying sizes from a corporation, to the UK National Health Service, to a whole nation. For any given analysis, the 'environment' is everything that is external to such a system under consideration. Systems are actually defined in terms of processes, but sometimes processes coincide closely with physical structures so that a cell's environment might (approximately) consist of everything outside the cell, including other systems such as other cells, the whole organism and other organisms. For a human organization such as an autonomous hospital, the environment external to the system might include physical aspects such as climate and geography, but also other organizational systems such as politics, the law and the media. Management systems (where they occur) are a form of social organizational system which is engaged in modeling the organization it manages. For a system of management, everything other than itself is ‘environment’, but the organization that is being managed constitutes the most immediate environment.



Much empirical work has attempted to test the role of social capital relative to socio-economic outcomes such as income, poverty, crime rate, health and so on. Cross sectional analysis represents the main and still most popular econometric methodology used so far. The reasons why this standard practice has been dominating empirical papers are at least two. Firstly, the use of survey-questionnaires allows social scientists to capture different aspects of the life, habits and social conditions of individuals that might affect their wealth. However, very often this type of data set is based on a particular yea

r and it is not always repeated consistently in subsequent years. Even when surveys are conducted with a regular frequency, this might not always occur on a yearly basis.Secondly, opinions and perceptions about attitudes, codes of conducts, norms, values and trust are not likely to change dramatically on a yearly basis. On the contrary, unlike popular economic variables such as investment, consumption and unemployment, these “opinion-shaped-variables” might require a remarkable length of time in order to change (for instanceit is likely that my opinion about trusting other people in general might remain unchangedfrom one year to another. This means that it might take more than three or four years for anopinion about a particular value to change). Hence, under these circumstances, panel or timeseries analysis might not produce the expected outcome. Hence, more “consistent” analysis might apply pooled cross section methodologies that allow the social scientist to detect, at least, the co-movements of the aggregate variables over a period of time that is above theyear. The merit of these approaches is to include socio-economic variables in the modelspecification in order to capture what, quite reasonably, the pure economic model leaves aside (Charley: 2010). However, the lack of data and a not yet established theoreticalframework reduce somehow the consistency of the empirical analysis leaving large room

(Maybe too large and too often) for the author’s interpretation of the results. Relative to this issue, Durlauf and Fafchamps (2004) identify some of the main problems which arecommon in the empirical literature of social capital. Firstly, in analysis at the individual level

It is not always clear whether individual returns from social capital are good indicators of aggregate returns. For instance the employment relationship might create informal networks where individual returns to social capital (inside the network) might exceed social returns and

Therefore generate unequal outcomes by reinforcing the insider-outsider system. Secondly,model specifications might raise problems of exchangeability linked to the problem of choosing the control variables in the regression. This problem refers to the choice of a model that is not correctly specified. In this sense, the model does not work across different contexts. In other words, observations and specific models should be comparable across different contexts. The unlucky alternative would be that “the residuals in the sample will

contain forms of heterogeneity that call into question the placement of the observations in a common regression” (Durlauf and Fafchamps, 2004 p.32) with the unhappy consequence of aspecific model that work only for that particular case study and from which it is not able to

deduct any “general regression” useful for other studies and cases. Thirdly, some empirical analysis might suffer from model uncertainty and more precisely from parameter heterogeneity

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Office management system works with an office manager who will help plan, organize and control the office in order to achieve the goals of the organization (Bliss: 1998). He helps in determining the manpower requirements, recruiting, selecting, and training people to perform the office work efficiently and effectively... Click here for more


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