The banking sector of our time has been
distinguished from other related financial sector because of the numerous
services and assistance it can render to the people and the economy at large.
The banking sector of Nigeria requires day to day regulation to bring the
sector to standard and out of crises.
Therefore, to create awareness on the management of
this sector and the impact of the regulatory authority (CBN) on this sector is
one of the factors that induced the caring out of this project.
The methodology of this project follows series of
procedures. One of the procedures is the use of questionnaires to obtain
primary data used for the analysis of the project and a statistical model
called chisquare was used to analyze the answers gotten from the
questionnaires. Moreso, Textbooks, Newspapers and CBN Bullions were also used
as secondary data.
Findings from the analysis shows that,
recapitalization actually has a great effect on the profitability and liquidity
of banks in Nigeria. Thus, the hypotheses were tested rightly and positive
result was obtained at the end of analysis. For instance, the analysis revealed
that the increase in capital base has actually enhanced banks' liquidity and
profitability as majority of the respondents supported the statement in the
Finally, it is suggested that, the current capital
base (25 billion) should be maintained to a reasonable point before another
increment. As a new increase of capital base at an earlier stage can affect the
banks' operation. Also, the CBN as regulatory in authority should put in place
effective measures to checkmate issues of mismanagement of funds in banks.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.0 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
1.1 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
1.2 RESEARCH QUESTION
1.3 OBJECTIVES/PURPOSE OF
1.4 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
1.6 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
1.9 ORGANISATION OF STUDY
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.2 MODELS RELEVANT TO THE
2.3 THEORIES RELEVANT TO THE
2.4 CURRENT LITERATURE BASED
ON VARIABLE MODEL AND THEORY
2.5 SUMMARY OF CHAPTER
3.2 RESTATEMENT OF RESEARCH
3.3 RESTATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS
3.4 RESEARCH METHOD AND
3.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF STUDY
3.6 SAMPLING DESIGN AND
3.7 DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENT
3.8 ADMINISTRATION OF DATA
CONNECTION AND INSTRUMENT
3.9 LIMITATION OF METHODOLOGY
4.0 DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF
4.2 DISTRIBUTIONS OF RESPONDENTS ACCORD TO
4.3 QUESTIONNAIRE CLASSIFICATION
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
AND CONCLUSION DRAWN FROM STUDY
OF THE STUDY
It is incontrovertible that the banking system is
the engine of growth in any economy given its function of financial
intermediation. Through this function, banks facilitate capital formation,
lubricate the production engine and promote economic growth.
However, in order to present explicit and self
explanatory of the banks in Nigeria, the evolution of banks in Nigeria were
categorized under six major periods which are:
(i) Free Banking Era (up to 1952)
(ii) Pre-central Banking Era (1952-1959)
(iii)The Era of banking Regulations (1959-1970)
(iv)The Indigenization Era (1970-1976)
(v) The Era of post-okigho (1977 onward)
(vi)The Era of Financial System Deregulation
(vii)Era of Rehabilitation and Restructuring (1991
Furthermore, the first period witnessed two main
features. First, was absence of banking regulation and the second was that,
setting up of a bank was not related to economic capacity or penchant for
Thus, this period was a period that banking
regulation was absence and anybody can establish a bank provided he registered
it under the company's ordinance.
Moreso, the second phase of banking development in
Nigeria brought about banking ordinance in 1952 and the indigenous banking boom
collapsed when the ordinance become operational for all banks in the country in
1955 all the mushroom banks established prior to 1957 collapsed except three,
those banks were the African Banking Corporation, the Agbomagbe Bank and
Also the banking regulation of banks in Nigeria
came up within 1959 to 1970 when the Central Bank of Nigeria was established in
1958 and the bank carried on with the duty of regulating the activities of
banks in Nigeria.
Thus, the CBN commenced operation on 1st July, 1959. Moreso, this was how the era of banking system in Nigeria
continued till the era of Rehabilitation and Restructuring which started in
1991 to date, some banks especially the state government owned banks had shown
signs of financial distress since late 1982, and with some other reasons, the
Central Bank of Nigeria in 1972 among others. These are of Rehabilitation and
restructuring was when the CBN began to come up with different policies to put
the banking system of Nigeria in order and that was what leads to the reform of
capital base on July 6, 2004 when the banks in Nigeria were compelled to
increase their capital base from N2 billion to N25 billion on or before December, 2004.
The need for a strong, reliable and viable banking
system is underscored by the fact that the banking industry is one of the
sectors in which the shareholders' fund is only a small proportion of the
liabilities of the enterprises. It is therefore not surprising that the banking
industry is one of the most regulated sectors in the economy.
Hence, the need for the various reforms that has
characterized the banking sector since 1952 when the first banking ordinance
was propounded up till the current banking reforms and meeting of Nigeria's
Thus, this study has as its focus on the effect of
the current banking reforms on the liquidity and profitability of banks in
Nigeria, it will also examine how the reform agenda of the Central Bank of
Nigeria has been able to address some of the problems that necessitate its implementation,
this is because banking reforms by ways of regulation, de-regulation and
supervision are carried out in order to preserve the stability of the national
Liquidity and profitability are the life blood of
any business organization, banks inclusive; hence, the big question on the mind
of financial analyst is that will recapitalization exercise enhance the
liquidity and profitability banks in Nigeria.
According to Omololu (2001), liquidity is the
ability of a business firm to meet its short-term financial obligation without receives
to the sale of its fixed assets.
Also according to Ituwe (2005), profitability is
the excess of revenue over cost.
In this regard, some of the major challenges the
reform was targeted are the crisis facing the banking organization and they
Borrowing and lending culture
Poor corporate governance
Challenge of ethics and professionalism
Hence, one would assume that once all these
challenges have been addressed the problem of liquidity and profitability in
banking industry will be a thing of the past.
Thus, the Central Bank of Nigeria has used other
tool to threat this crisis before the reform option was introduced.
Consequently, the Central Bank of Nigeria took over
the management of some banks in 1972 which include National Bank of Nigeria for
the purpose of restricting and revitalizing these banks. Also, in 1998, the CBN
belatedly revoked banking license as the most effective resolution option
available for terminally sick bank and this method affect over thirteen
commercial banks. This was how regulations took place in the banking sector up
to the period of re-capitalization process introduction on July 6, 2004.
In view of the above, this study intends to provide
solution to some problems which include among others:
Problem of post-consolidation effects
on the re-capitalization process.
Effect of re-capitalization on the
liquidity of banks in Nigeria.
Effect of re-capitalization on the
profitability of banks in Nigeria.
Effectiveness of the reform.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
Research questions are those interrogative
statements that arise from the course of the study. These questions are meant
to provide information or adequate answers to the study. The question as will related
to this study will include the following:
Why the need for recapitalization?
What are the benefits of
What causes liquidity problem in banks?
What is the effect of the reform on the
liquidity of banks in Nigeria?
What is the effect of the reform on the
profitability of banks in Nigeria?
Has this reform been able, to erase the
challenges facing the banks in Nigeria?
1.4 OBJECTIVES/ PURPOSE OF
The main objective of this study is to examine the
effect of recapitalization on the liquidity and profitability of banks in
Nigeria. That is, to see how the reform has been able to enhance the liquidity
and profitability of banks after the consolidation exercise.
Other specific objectives are to:
Determine how the challenges facing
banks in Nigeria has been confronted by the Central Bank of Nigeria through the
Examine effect of the reform on banking
development in Nigeria.
Examine possible means of preventing
crisis in the banking sector.
Determine the effect of
recapitalization on the profitability of Nigeria banks.
Determine the effect of
recapitalization on the liquidity of banks in Nigeria.
1.5 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS
Hypothesis is a tentative statement about the
relationship that exists between two or more variables. Hence, it is a
conjectural statement about the relationship among variables which need to be
tested and subsequently accepted or rejected.
Those that can be deducted from this study is based
on the objectives of study and are as follows:
(i) Ho: The recapitalization exercise will
not have any effect on the liquidity of banks in Nigeria.
(ii) Ha: The re-capitalization exercise will
have effect on the liquidity of banks in Nigeria.
(iii) Ho: The re-capitalization exercise will
not have any effect on the profitability of banks in Nigeria.
(iv) Ha: The re-capitalization exercise will
have effect on the profitability of banks in Nigeria.
SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The significance of study is what would assist in
providing lasting panacea to the problems facing the banking sector of Nigeria
that brought about the reform. This research work intends to show impact on the
Benefits of the reform to banks in
Make the government to know the worth
of reform on banks liquidity.
(iii) Make the government to know the worth of this reform on banks
The reform will make the CBN to
maintain policy that will enhance the growth of banks in Nigeria.
Generally, this is refer to as the procedures
involved in caring out or executing the research work. Therefore, in conducting
the research to ensure accuracy of records and information to obtain data for
this study, the below data shall be used.
(i) Primary data: This involved gathering raw
facts together to form data and his will include:
Library and desk research
CBN bullion on reform and consolidation
of April to June 2005.
Moreso, for ease of analysis, chi-square shall be
employed in effectively analyzing the data so gathered and it is measured as:
formular (X2) = (0 - E)2
X2 = chi-square
= the observed frequency
E = the
2 = constant figure
OF THE STUDY
This scope of this study is to see how banks has
fared in the last one year (after consolidation), this will be done by looking
at the balance sheet of the bank use as the case study (Guarantee Trust Bank)
before and after the reform.
Moreover, to see what kind of improvements that has
taken place in the banking sector and likewise taking a look at one particular
sector of the banking industries for proper analysis.
As it is well known, we operate in an environment
full of uncertainties; hence, some factors constitute impediments to the
effective conduct of the study. In the context of our environment, the
following factors constituted limitations to the effective conduct of the
Inadequate data bank.
Time within which the study must be
Secrecy of organisation's data for the
sake of confidentiality.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
It is the ability of a bank to meet or satisfy additional credit demand of its
qualified customers and the immediate business community. Thus is measure using
the following ratios:
• Deposit run off ratio = Quick Asset
• Quick assets = cash
+ short term fund + investment in government securities
• Current Ratio = Current
Current Liabilities etc
It is an excess of revenue over associated expenses for an activity over a
period of time or for particular transaction. It is measure using the following
• Return Assets Net profit
Total Asset (Less goodwill)
• Return on capital employed – EBIT
Total capital employed etc
It is a fusion of the assets and liabilities, in whole or in part of two or
more business establishments to form an entirely new establishment.
This is described as a process by which banks through the instrument or agent
of government (CBN) are order to increase there capital base to a certain
1.10 ORGANIZATION OF STUDY
The chapters of this study are made up of five
chapters and are as follows:
The first chapter of this study deals with
introduction, statement of problem, research question, objectives of study,
research methodology, scope of the study and definition of terms.
The second chapter of the study which will contain
model and theories, summary of chapter and references.
While chapter three deals with the methodology
which contain restatement of research question and hypothesis, research design,
characteristics of study population, sampling design and procedure, data
collection instrument, pilot test, administration of the methodology and also
The fourth chapter is made up of presentation and
analysis of data, respondent characteristics and classification, presentation
and analysis of data recording to research question, analysis of data and
summary of findings.
Finally, the last chapter entails summary,
conclusion and recommendation, summary of the study, conclusion drawn from the