The study investigated the effect of manual games on the
achievement of Junior Secondary School students in English grammar in Igbo-Eze North
Local Government area of Enugu State. Five research questions and five null
hypotheses guided the study. Related literatures were reviewed for the study.
The study adopted non-equivalent control group quasi experimental design using
a population of 2, 107 junior secondary school students in the local government
area. A sample of 210 JSS 2 students comprising 127 female students and 83 male
students. English grammar achievement test adapted from junior WAEC examination
past questions was used to collect relevant data for the study. The instrument
was face validated by three experts, one in Science Education and two from Arts
Education all in University of Nigeria. Content validation of the instrument
was ensured through the use of test blue print. A reliability index on 0.65 was
obtained using Kuder-Richardson’s formulae 20. Data collected were analysed
using mean, standard deviation and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Mean and
standard deviation were used to answer the research questions while ANCOVA was
used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the
study showed that; the use of manual games instructional technique has
significantly proved very effective in improving the achievement of students in
English grammar than the conventional discussion technique. Also, gender
influence on the achievement of students in English grammar was found not to be
significant. On the other hand, there was a significant differential
achievement of students with high and low ability levels in favour of the high
ability level students. Both gender and ability level students were found not
to interact significantly with instructional technique to affect the
achievement of students in English grammar. Based on the findings, it was
recommended among others that School authority should enforce the use of manual
games by the teachers in the teaching of English language since its efficacy
has been proven.
Background of the Study
Language is man’s priceless procession which is a mark of his personal and
group identity. It is equally man’s major vehicle for self expression.
Anagbogu, Mbah and Eme (2001, p.1) posit that “language is a means which human
beings have devised for communicating ideas, feelings, emotions, desires, etc
through complex vocal or written symbols”. Language according to Kirkpatrick
(1983) is a mode of expression or any manner of expressing thought or feeling
intelligibly. It is an important means of communication. As the chief tool for
human thinking and for transforming experiences into ideas, most learning takes
place through the use of one language or the other.
Language is seen as a tool for communication. Grice (2012) sees language as a
system of communication which enables human beings to cooperate. This social
aspect of the language is fundamental to the cooperate existence of human
beings in a given society. This definition stresses the social functions of
language and the fact that humans use it to express themselves and to
manipulate objects in their environment. The uniqueness of human language
is therefore attributed to human capacity to produce an infinite set of
utterances from a finite set of elements and because the symbols and
grammatical rules of any particular language are largely arbitrary, so that the
system can only be acquired through social interaction (Searle, 2012).
The word, ‘language’ can also be used to describe the set of rules that make
combination possible, or the set of utterances that can use practical forms of
those rules. Agbedo (2010) posits that language can also be defined in social
perspectives. Therefore language here is seen as a system of communication that
enables humans to cooperate in different fields of human endeavour. He also
stated that in human communication i.e language, the ties between meaningful
element and their meanings are arbitrary and a matter of convention. This
definition stresses the social function of language and the fact that humans
use it to express themselves in their various environments.
In a nutshell, human society can hardly survive without language. This is
almost certain as human beings are always interacting with one another and
language is the principal tool for this interaction. It enables people to form
and maintain relationships through the sharing of thoughts, feelings,
intentions, ideas and needs. In Nigeria, this great importance of language is
clearly pronounced. The nation has a myriad of indigenous languages which have
been used over the ages for the satisfaction of basic human needs of
communication. However, none of these indigenous languages is spoken by an
overwhelming majority of the people for it to perform a bonding common service
to the multi-lingual, multi-ethnic groups in Nigeria (Egbe, 2009). Although
these languages are still very much in use, the appearance of the English
language in the Nigerian linguistic landscape through trade and colonization
has had a far-reaching effect. The existence of enormous linguistic diversity
in the Nigerian society before colonization made it possible for English to be
naturally put in place as a lingua franca for the purpose of maintaining
effective interaction across the diverse linguistic groups. It is at present
the official language of education, commerce and politics in the country.
In the Nigerian educational system, this dominance of the English language is
glaring. It is a core subject that is offered at the primary and secondary
schools (FRN, 2004). It is also a compulsory subject at the higher institutions
of learning. Besides, it is stipulated to be progressively used as a medium of
instruction from primary four in primary schools. Hence, it is pathway to the
learning of other subjects at every level of education in Nigeria. In addition,
one must have a credit pass in it before one can gain admission in any tertiary
institution no matter the course of the person’s choice. Thus, the English
language in Nigeria is not only the criterion for assessing certificates, but
also a benchmark for measuring the quality and depth of learning. Buttressing
this, Baldeh (1990, p.7), claims that “educational failure is primarily a
linguistic failure in the English language”.
Looking at the pride of place which the English language occupies in the
Nigerian educational, political, economic and social settings, and the fact
that it is taught more regularly than other subjects in the primary and
secondary schools, it could be expected that students should display a high
degree of proficiency in it at the interest and external examinations.
Unfortunately, this is not the case. In spite of the vital importance of the
language in the country, students’ performance in it has been very discouraging.
According to Uwadiae (2008) over 80 percent of the candidates who registered
for the May/June 2008 West African Senior School Certificate Examination
(WASSCE) did not score credit in the English language. The November 2009
National Examination results were also poor. Ogunsola, Akinjide, Nwangu and
Taiye (2010), reported that only 1.80 percent of the 234,682 of the candidates
who sat for the examination got credits in English. In 2011, WAEC results
indicate that 40.11% of the candidates registered for WAEC had credit pass
while 74.01% failed (WAEC Chief Examiners Report, 2011) while NECO released a
result showing about 45.05% passed while 54.05% failed (NECO Chief Examiner’s
In 2013, WAEC results released show that only 24.5% of the candidates passed at
credit level and 75.5% failed (WAEC, Chief Examiners Report, 2013) while NECO
recorded only 10% pass at credit level whereas 90% failed (NECO Chief
Examiner’s Report 2013). WAEC also recorded that 27% of the candidates passed
at credit level and 73% failed (WAEC, Chief Examiners Report, 2014).
In Igbo-Eze North Local Government Area of Enugu State, the instance of the
poor performance of students in English language is clear. Recent research
findings are clearly show glaring evidence. According to Ezema (2010), students
in the area can hardly write or speak a correct sentence. In line with this,
Ugwu (2011) maintains that overwhelming majority of the students in the area
exhibit an embarrassingly poor command of the English language. Ugwu attributes
this poor performance to a number of factors such as shortage of qualified
teachers, inadequate teaching materials, poor school environment, unseriousness
on the part of the students, lack of motivation and finally teaching
techniques. The mass failure in the English language is attributable to poor
grounding in the four major language skills of listening, speaking, reading and
writing. The acquisition of these skills and attainment of proficiency in them
requires, to a reasonable extent, the mastery of the grammar of the language.
The grammar of a language can be referred to as a set of rules guiding the
usage of the language. However, grammarians are not unanimous on what grammar
is or what it should be or how it should be taught (Otagburuagu, Obah, Onuigbo
and Okorji, 2007). In an attempt to reconcile such differences, grammarians
have made efforts to inquire into the nature of grammar itself by emphasizing
the essential ingredients instead of quarrelling over what should be the most
acceptable definition. In this perspective, grammar is seen as a body of
knowledge dealing with sentence formation, a set of rules showing how sentences
are formed and a usage informed by proper choice of words (Otagburuagu et al, 2007).
From the foregoing, it is clear that grammar is the central part of any
language. Therefore, if any language is worth learning, the learning of its
grammar is an indispensable aspect of it.
In acquiring one’s mother-tongue, one needs not to bother about the grammatical
conventions of the language because a first language speaker or learner has
his/her grammar internalized in him/her. On the other hand, the second language
learner, as is the case with the Nigerian learners of English, is not so
endowed. A second language learner has to attain a considerable proficiency in
the grammar of such language before he/she can claim some mastery of it (Oji,
1994). Hence, the Nigerian learners of the English language have to learn its
grammar. Proper usages of the language belong to the grammar because such usage
draws its code from grammatical rules. In Nigeria, grammar is divided into
topics and sub-topics while teaching it at junior and senior secondary school
level. According to (NERDC, 2006, 2007) grammar is broken down into topics and
sub-topics in Nigeria education system, in the junior and senior secondary
education curricula at the secondary school level. The topics and sub-topics
include those on nominal groups (nouns, pronouns, noun phrases, and
nominalization), verbal groups (tense, aspect, sequence of tenses, phrasal
verbs), nominal group plus verbal group (subject verb agreement, transitive and
intransitive verbs), adverbial/adjectival group (adverbs and adjectives),
adverbial phrases, adverbial and adjectival phrases and clauses. Irrespective
of the topic to be taught, tenses run through all the structures. Therefore,
tense will be the focus of the researcher in this study.
grammar is classified into papers 1 and 2 of the English language examination
in senior school certificate examination. Paper one is on essay/letter writing,
comprehension and summary. In letter/essay writing grammar is tested under
mechanical accuracy, in comprehension and summary, the grammatical aspect will
be checked before awarding full mark. If there is grammatical error, no matter
the level of the idea of the writer, half a mark will be deducted from each
answer. Paper 2, is the objective test. This area is used to test the students’
knowledge of lexis and structure. It is not surprising therefore that the
language and its grammar form part of the core curriculum of all the teaching,
learning and examining bodies in Nigeria. So, it can be deduced that students’
mass failure in the English language examinations may be as a result of
improper grounding in the grammar of the language. WAEC Chief Examiners’ Report
(2012) expressed concern about the poor construction of English language of the
candidates; incorrect use of tenses, faulty grammar and wrong spelling.
The problem of the students’ poor performance has been expressed clearly in a
document released by the international final awards and examiners appointment
committee of WAEC held in Accra in September, 2012, entitled “WAEC unhappy with
students’ performance in English”. Hence, poor teaching method has been
identified as a major factor contributing to the poor performance of candidates
in external examinations, the recommendations by the WAEC Chief Examiners’
supported by the International Awards and Examiners Appointed Committee (2012)
is that teachers should adopt better methods and strategies of teaching the
language more effectively.
One of the major reasons given by researchers (Ezema, 2010 and Ugwu, 2011) for
the abysmal poor performance of students in English grammar includes faulty
teaching techniques. According to these researchers, none of the well-known and
popular techniques for teaching grammar has shown any sign of being able to fix
the monumental problems that students have in English grammar in Igbo-Eze North
Local Government Area. The techniques in question include pattern practice,
substitution drills, completion exercise, chaining and transformation. Without
doubt, each of these techniques has its own shortcomings. The pattern practice
and the substitution drills, for example, are necessary whenever a new pattern
is taught but they cannot address the grammatical structures in their
complexities. The completion exercises, on the other hand, are only for learners
who have mastered the structures and can be given room to try their hands;
while chaining and transformations require elaborate flexibility and
specialized knowledge on the part of the teacher. The point however remains
that all the efforts of the teachers to use these techniques effectively in
teaching English language seem to have failed because there is no improvement
in the students’ performance in English language grammar.
The technique that is predominantly in use by most teachers of English grammar
is discussion technique which is conventional. Discussion technique of
teaching refers to a diverse body of teaching techniques, which emphasize
participation, dialogue, and two-way communication. It is a process where both
parities send a message which must not only be properly encoded but also
decoded. In this technique of teaching, one expresses one’s ideas clearly, to
listen to and to hear, to interact, to be a leader and or a member of a group
to know cultural differences and to be ready for self evaluation (Wells, 2009).
According to Roby (2008), discussion technique is an instructional mode which
gives students the opportunity to express their views or opinions orally on
certain issues. It involves sharing of ideas and experiences, solving problems
and promoting tolerance with understanding. Here, one person speaks at a time
while the others listen. Discussions may be among the members of a small group,
or whole class and can be teacher led or student-led. Tharp and Gallimore
(2008) posit that other terms for discussion used for pedagogical purposes are
instructional conversations while Newmann (2009) names it substantive
Discussions that can be used in the classroom are of different forms. Okchhari
(2005) identifies two major types of discussion which are formal and informal.
Informal discussion includes debates, panels, symposia etc and they are
governed by pre-determined set of rules. Formal discussion on the other way
round, may involve whole group or small groups of people divided with the
intention of discussing themes. These types of discussions are not governed by
pre-determined set of rules. The formal discussion technique will be used in
this study as the instructional technique for the control group. Discussion in
the classroom involves a free verbal interchange of ideas for all the students.
The teacher is the leader who guides the discussion here. The teacher will ask
questions and decide on who will respond. Wells (2009) maintains that small
group discussion is better than whole class discussion. This helps more
students to give their own views through open participation. Here, students
will be divided into small groups of five, six, or even ten and the teacher
gives the questions or tasks to discuss and report back. Each group should have
a group leader who will control the discussion process and report what has been
discussed back. The guideline to a good discussion is that it should be well
planned and the teacher incharge should understand the topic, content and the
objectives of the lesson that will be discussed. The teacher’s way of giving
instruction should be clear and must be discussed in an environment that is
conducive for the students.
The main point of the discussion is to teach and encourage students’
constructive thinking, to express and support ideas logically and to interact
with group members. As good as the discussion technique may appear, it has its
own problems. Here, the teachers usually judge the success of their discussions
by the extent to which students speak. Some students feel unable to say what
they mean and are afraid of being wrong if they contribute. Others are
intimidated by dominant participants and so do not speak. In discovering the
students’ discomfort, many teachers feel that the discussion method simply does
not work in classroom setting (Gall and Gall, 2006). Another problem is that
classes tend to get a bit noisy and disorganized when the discussion is
introduced as a result of loss of control.
In the light of the above state of affairs, one should seek for solution by
trying other innovative techniques, techniques that will be both activity
oriented and child-centered to see whether they could arouse the interest of
students. Courthard (2005) suggests, among others, simulation exercises
where students engaged in role-play. He further posits that the students should
be engaged in problem-solving exercises like games which allow them to do all
the talking while the teacher merely corrects them where necessary. The use of
games may be a useful technique for teaching the English grammar since games
are activity centered.
A game is a form of play or sports, especially a competitive one, played
according to rules and decided by skill. Game is a complete
episode or period of play typically ending in a definite result. Schell (2008,
p. 37) maintains that “a game is a problem solving activity, approached with a
playful attitude”. Avedone (2009) defines game as structured play usually undertaken
for enjoyment and sometimes used as an educational tool. The key components of
games are goals, rules, challenges and interactions. Games are characterized
into two, manual games and electronic games. Manual games are the type of games
usually played with concrete objects such as boards, papers, cards and any
other useful existing object in the environment. Electronic games on the other
way round are the games that involve human interaction with a user interface to
generate visual feedback on a video device. All games whether manual or
electronic, according to Prenksy (2001) are characterized by rules, goals and
objectives, outcomes and feedback, conflict, competition, challenge/opposition,
interaction, and representation of story; an interactive playing environment
and the struggle of the players against some kind of opposition.
In language learning, games may be highly motivating since they are amusing and
at the same time challenging. They may employ meaningful and useful language in
real contexts, and encourage and increase co-operation. Among all teaching
strategies, games appear to be very motivating and interesting in terms of
usage since every one was involved in one type of game or the other. Teaching
games is often associated with simulations probably because both of them
involve role playing and they create problem solving situations. Game as a
teaching strategy is child centered. It helps the teacher to gain students’
attention while learning. Games also develop students’ capacity to observe and
remember details. The interactive nature of teaching games may provide
opportunity for learners to be motivated and challenged.
Games may be good ways of practising language, for they provide a mode of what
learners will use the language for in real life in the future. Language games
are useful for keeping children over words and phrases they have learned and
for teaching sentence construction (Fuller, 2009). Children play games easily
with or without the assistance of an instructor. The effectiveness of games in
language learning has been supported by research findings as they have been
found to have advantage and effectiveness in learning vocabulary in the English
language and Igbo grammar as shown by Huyen and Nga (2003) and Umo (2004)
respectively. By analogy, they may equally be very effective in the teaching
and learning of English grammar.
This study focuses on manual games. In this study, manual games known as ‘go
fishing’ was used to test students’ performance in English grammar -tenses.
This game entails forms of contest in which the class is split into small
groups or pairs and each group tries to beat the other in the production of
sound grammatical structures of the target language presented to them. This game
named ‘go fishing’, is a game on identification and replacement of tenses which
may aim at developing the students’ talent in the proper identification of
tenses, (simple present and simple past-tenses, present continuous and past
continuous tense). To play the ‘go fishing game’, the class was
divided into four groups of ten students each. Language items are carefully
selected and presented to the learners to produce in form of contest under the
guidance of the teacher. The teacher will place four baskets/boxes that contain
word cards written the same words or group of words before the four groups
contesting. The wrong grammatical structure of different sentence types was
given by writing them on the clipboards. The teacher will hang the four clipboards
on the wall/chalkboard, one for each group, and place the boxes for each of
them. The students will be asked to go and fish the correct present and past
continuous tenses to replace the wrong ones. Also, different sentences were
given on the four clipboards, omitting the correct tenses which the students
will fish out from the boxes/baskets and place in the gap as well. The
correct fishing and replacement of those words attract one point while the
incorrect fishing and replacement of those words attract no point. At the
end of the games, the teacher announces the group or team that won. The other
groups who lose should also be appreciated and appropriate explanation given on
the area of weakness for correction. The games continue to provide construction
of particular grammatical structures in an enjoyable contest. Games may give
shy students opportunities to express their opinions and feelings. They may
also lower anxiety, thus making the acquisition of input more lively. They are
highly motivating and entertaining and can as well give students a relaxed
atmosphere. It may also enable learner to acquire new experiences within the
target language which are not always possible during typical lessons.
In examining the potency of the games technique on achievement in English
grammar, it is also pertinent to look at the effect of gender as well as the
interaction on the achievement of students taught English grammar using games.
Gender is seen by Offorma (2004) as a learned, socially constructed conditions
ascribed to individuals on the basis of being born either male or female. It is
enforced through cultural practices. Hence, the type of training and exposure
given to male and female children in a given society depends on the people’s
understanding and belief. Gender, therefore, is a very important variable
because a person’s orientation and outlook play a crucial role in performance.
However, there are conflicting reports on whether gender has a significant
influence in language performance (Offorma, 2004).
The researcher also looked at the effect of ability level on the achievement of
the students taught English grammar using games. Ability level can be defined
as some one’s level of skill at doing something. According to Longman Dictionary
of Contemporary English, ability level is the state of being able to do
something. Similarly, ability level has been shown to have a significant effect
on achievement in some studies, but not in others. For example Uzoegwu (2004)
revealed that ability level had no significant effect on the achievement of
students in essay writing when the cooperative learning method was in use while
Eze and Onuigbo (2008) reported that the high ability visually impaired
students achieved significantly higher in the comprehension tests than their
low ability counterparts. Based on the fact that students are assigned to
classes on the basis of their academic ability in some schools, and the
possibility that the ability level of the students may go a long way in the
reception of any technique, the present researcher intends to investigate the
effect of games technique on male and female students’ achievement as well as
their influence on high ability and low ability students in English grammar.
This is aimed at contributing to research in the direction of whether gender
and ability level are related to competence in that aspect of the language.
At this juncture, having seen the dismal performance of students in English
grammar, the ineffectiveness of the popular technique for teaching it, the
efficiency of the technique of games in teaching and learning generally and the
possibility that the same game technique can be tried in seeking for solution
to the chronic mass failure in the English language, it is needful, therefore,
to test the effect of games technique on junior secondary school students’
achievement in English grammar.
Statement of the Problem
English grammar is an important aspect of the English language. However, the
teaching and learning of English grammar has been faced with problems. One of
such problems is teacher’s use of inappropriate method in teaching English
grammar in secondary schools. The problems may be as a result of the continuous
use of discussion technique which is more of teacher centered. The steady
decline in the performance of secondary school students in English language
examinations has been of much concern to the educationists in the country. Many
scholars have stressed that the candidates’ poor knowledge of rules of grammar
especially inability to use the grammar of English language correctly hinders
correct English language.
Games being a problem-solving activity, approached with a playful attitude, may
be a better technique in teaching and learning English grammar. However, the
importance of games instruction in other subjects has been proved. The use of
games which seems to be an important component for increasing students’
motivation in learning a language and given students multiple exposure in
acquisition of language has not been giving attention especially in teaching
and learning of English grammar. Therefore, the foregoing underscores the need
for finding a way of improving students’ performance in grammar in other to
achieve the set objectives by the examining body (WAEC) and also to satisfy
other varied uses of grammar. The problem of this study, therefore, is to
determine the effect of manual games on the achievement of junior secondary
school students’ in English grammar in Igbo-Eze North Local Government Area of
Purpose of the Study
The general purpose of this study was to find out the effect of manual games
technique on junior secondary school students’ achievement in English grammar
in Igbo-Eze North Local Government Area of Enugu State. Specifically, the study
intended to determine:
mean achievement scores of students taught English grammar with manual games
and those taught with the conventional discussion technique.
influence of gender on the achievement of students taught English grammar.
influence of ability level on the achievement of students taught English grammar
interaction effect of technique and gender on students’ mean achievement
scores in English grammar.
interaction effect of technique and ability level on students’ mean
achievement scores in English grammar.
Significance of the Study
This study has both theoretical and practical significance. Theoretically, this
study was used to explore the reliability of the tenets of the cognitivist,
constructivist, as well as the behaviourist theory of psychology which advocates
child-centered education. According to the behaviourists, intellectual
development is the result of interaction of hereditary and environmental
factors. Education is not something which the teacher does, but a natural
process which develops spontaneously in the human being (NAMTA, 2010). It is
not acquired by listening to words, but in virtue of experiences in which the
child acts on his environment. This theory believes that for learning to occur,
learners must have some drive that motivates her for action. This theory lays
emphasis on an environment that is conducive for teaching and learning.
In Piaget’s cognitive theory of language development, the theory believed that
for a child to know and construct knowledge of the world the child must act on
objects and it is this action which provides knowledge of these objects.
In the process of the games, students acquire their own learning
abilities. In the process of games, students acquire the facts and knowledge;
develop the right type of value and attitude trough competition, cooperation
and joint decision-making with other members of the class and learning takes
place in an informal and friendly atmosphere. Equally, wholeness of learning as
emphasized by cognitive learning, theory would be attained.
Also, the constructivism learning theory of Vygotsky (1962) maintains that the
learner should play a central role in mediating and controlling learning.
According to this theory, activities, opportunities, tools and environments are
provided to encourage meta cognition self-analysis-regulation, reflection and
awareness. This has a close relationship with games in teaching which is
students centered. The result of this study may therefore be helpful in
believing and disbelieving the tenets of the constructivist theory.
The result of this study will be of practical significant to a lot of people.
The findings of this study will help the students, teachers, parents’, school
authorities’ curriculum designers, policy-makers and textbook authors to proffer
useful and practical solutions to the problem of poor and ineffective methods
of teaching English language in the secondary schools. The findings of this
study will be of practical significance to the students as they will likely
facilitate their better performance in grammar. It is hoped that through the
use of manual games in teaching English grammar, students may gain meaningful
learning on their own; and that they may not only develop problem solving
skills but will also acquire confidence in their own learning abilities.
Through the use of games, students may acquire the facts and knowledge; develop
the right type of value and attitude through competition, cooperation and joint
decision-making with other members of the class and learning takes place in an
informal and friendly atmosphere in favour of the reluctant speakers who shy
away from speaking out.
The findings of this study will be of significance to the teachers who are
curriculum implementers. Use of games techniques may enhance the teacher’s
achievement of the objectives of the lesson within the cognitive, affective and
psychomotor domains very easily. Meanwhile, games are among the teaching
techniques that have been known to be useful in the achieving the objectives of
teaching at all levels. As the students develop ability to work on their own
through games, the teacher will observe, guide and analyze the outcome of the
learning process. Therefore, by counselling and correcting the students, the
work of the teacher has been reduced. The teacher will also discover the
weakness of the learners for immediate correction and their strengths to
enhance their intellectual ability. The findings of this study will also help
the curriculum planners to restructure the English grammar curriculum so that
it will be learned towards problem solving activities which will be less time
Finally, it is hoped that this study will help in the improvement of English
language methodology in schools. It will also provide information on the
advantages of the use of games technique to textbook writers. The study so far
will provide information on the basis of decision-making about the types of
games and exercise to be included in English grammar textbooks for students and
Scope of the Study
This study was delimited to junior secondary school (JSS 2) students in
Igbo-Eze North Local Government Area of Enugu State. The content was on English
grammar- tenses in particular. Tense was used to express present and past
actions using simple present tense, present continuous tense, simple past tense
and past continuous tense.
The study equally examined the effect of games technique on the variables of
gender as well as the ability level of the students. The study necessarily
focused on the area of gender and ability levels. This was because these topics
were included in the scheme of work for junior secondary school classes
The following research questions guided the study.
are the mean achievement scores of students taught English grammar with manual
games and those taught with the conventional discussion technique?
are the mean achievement scores of male and female students in English grammar?
are the mean achievements scores of high and low ability level students in
4. What is
the interaction effect of technique and gender on students’ mean achievement
scores in English grammar?
5. What is
the interaction effect of technique and ability level on students’ mean
achievement scores in English grammar?
The following null hypotheses are formulated to guide the study. Each was
tested at 0.05 level of the significance.
H01: There is no significant
difference in the mean achievement scores of students in English grammar.
H02: There is no significant
difference in the mean achievement scores of male and female students in
H03: There is no significant
difference in the mean achievement scores of high and low ability level
students in English grammar.
H04: There is no significant
interaction effect of instructional technique and gender on students’ mean
achievement scores in English grammar.
H05: There is no
significant interaction effect of instructional technique and ability level on
students’ mean achievement scores in English grammar.