ORGANIC POLLUTANT CONTAMINATION OF THE RIVER ELBE AS ASSESSED BY BIOCHEMICAL MARKERS
2,011 marked this research material reliable.
Call or whatsapp: +2347063298784 or email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Excellent and professional research project topics and materials website. All the research tools, journals, seminars, essays, article, books, term papers, softwares and project materials for your research guide and final year projects are available here.
Type: Project Materials | Format: Ms Word | Attribute: Documentation Only | Pages: 65 Pages | Chapters: 1-5 chapters | Price: ₦ 3,000.00
·iroka Z. , J . Kri j
t , T. Randak, Z. Svobodova, G. Pe‰kova, J . Fuksa, J . Haj‰ lova, J . Jarkovsk
, M. Janska: Organic Pollutant Contamination of the River Elbe as Assessed by
Biochemical Markers. Acta Vet Brno 2005, 74: 293-303. The aim of the study was
to assess contamination of the River Elbe basin using selected biochemical markers.
Biochemical markers selected were enzymes of the first stage of xenobiotic
transformation, namely cytochrome P450 (CYP 450) and
ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD). The results were correlated with the most
important inducers of the enzymes, i.e. polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)
concentrations in muscle tissue of fish, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) values
in bottom sediments and 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHPY) values in fish bile (terminal
metabolite of PAH, or, rather, of one of them, i.e. pyrene), which were
determined during the chemical monitoring of the River Elbe basin. The
indicator species selected was chub (Leuciscus cephalus L.), which was captured
at ten locations in the River Elbe basin. A comparison between the EROD
activity and the CYP 450 content along the longitudinal profile of the Elbe
showed a significant correlation at the level of significance of p < 0.05.
The highest EROD activity levels in the liver were ascertained in Zelain (341
pmol·min-1·mg-1), Valy (263.2 pmol·min-1·mg-1) and Lysa nad Labem (179.17
pmol·min-1·mg-1). In Blanice (control location), EROD activity was
significantly lower than in any of the other locations studied (p < 0.05).
The study failed to produce an unambiguous proof of any correlations between
detoxification enzyme activity (CYP 450 and EROD) in the liver and their two
important inducers (PCB and PAHs). The possibility that other substances
causing activation or inhibition of detoxification enzymes were in play is also
discussed. Cytochrome P450, EROD, Leuciscus cephalus L., liver, PCB, PAH,
1-hydroxypyrene The River Elbe is one of the most important European rivers
(total length 1103.5 km). Its extensive basin of a total of 148 268 km2 lies on
the territory of two countries, i.e. the Czech Republic (51 336 km2) and
Germany (96 932 km2). Intensive research of the Czech and German reaches of the
Elbe started in 1991 under the Elbe I (1991 1994) project, and continued with
the Elbe II (1995 1998) and Elbe III (1999 2002) projects. In those projects,
large quantities of data regarding sources of pollution, chemical monitoring of
hazardous substances in various components of the aquatic environment, water
quality, etc. were collected and evaluated (Nesmurak 1994; BlaIkova et al.
1998; BlaIkova 2002). To enhance the relevance of results obtained by chemical
monitoring, it is, however, also ACTA VET. BRNO 2005, 74: 293–303 Address for
correspondence: ·iroka Zuzana Department of Public Veterinary Health and
Toxicology University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno Palackeho
1-3, 612 42 Brno, Czech Republic Phone: +420 541 562 780 E-mail: email@example.com
necessary to assess the effects of anthropogenic pollution of the aquatic
environment on fish. One of possible ways of assessing such effects is the use
of biochemical markers of contamination. They are measurable biochemical
parameters responding usually to substances with the same mechanism of toxic
effect. That means they are not, with some exceptions, specific for individual
xenobiotic substances. Their advantage lies in their ability to provide
comprehensive information on the effects of pollution, i.e. to reflect synergic
or antagonistic effects of individual components contributing to pollution. In
2003, the Elbe IV Project was started. For reasons mentioned above, chemical
monitoring in fish was complemented with assay of biochemical contamination
markers. Attention focused primarily on the enzymes of the first phase of
xenobiotics conversion, i.e. cytochrome P450 and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase
(EROD). Cytochrome P450 is an important biochemical marker of surface water
contamination with some industrial and agricultural pollutants (Stegeman and
Lech 1991). It is now believed that the most useful is the 1A family of
cytochrome P450 (Machala et al. 1997; Schlenk and Di Giul io 2002). The most
potent inducers for that isoform are substances from the groups of
polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH),
nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAH) and dioxins (e.g. 2, 3, 7, 8
TCDD) (White et al. 1997; Nilsen et al. 1998; Jung et al. 2001; Schlenk and Di
Giul io 2002). On the other hand, chronic exposure to these contaminants can
cause a lack of CYP1A induction response (Brammell et al. 2004), and also
assessment of CYP1A at the time of spawning can influence its level, because
estrogens can decrease CYP1A induction (Elskus 2004). Male fish seem to be more
sensitive to PAH and PCB than female fish (McArdle et al. 2004). The induction
of the CYP1A family is mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) (Bil l
iard 2002). Following its interaction with xenobiotic substances, it is carried
to the nucleus where it is the cause of enhanced expression of genes for CYP1A
and, subsequently, of increased synthesis of cytochrome proteins. The potential
toxicity of pollutants depends on their affinity to the AhR. The CYP1As are
also responsible for the metabolic activation of most of the known promutagens
and procarcinogens, and its elevated levels are responsible for such negative
effects as cocarcinogenesis, immunotoxicity and reproduction disorders (Lewis
et al. 2003; Carlson et al. 2004). The model CYP1A activity is the enzyme
ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), with its ability to convert substrates to
products demonstrating fluorescence, which can then be measured. This enzyme is
an important biochemical marker of contamination. The aim of the study
presented here was to use the assessment of biochemical markers cytochrome P450
and EROD in the livers of the indicator fish species (Leuciscus cephalus L.) to
evaluate contamination levels in various locations within the River Elbe basin.
Results of chemical monitoring relevant for the above contamination markers are
also outlined and correlated in the paper. They were PCB concentrations in chub
muscle tissues, concentrations of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHPY) in chub bile samples
(i.e. the final metabolite of PAHs, or rather of pyrene), and PAH
concentrations in bottom sediments in the locations studied. Materials and
Methods Animals and Sampling The chub (Leuciscus cephalus L.) was selected as
the most suitable indicator species. The chub is a common freshwater cyprinid
species that inhabits both clean and polluted rivers (Baru‰ et al. 1995). The
fish were captured with the use of a diesel-electric generator in 10 locations
in the River Elbe basin. The locations studied were Podoli and Zelain at the
River Vltava, a tributary to the Elbe, and Verdek, Numaice, Valy, Lysa nad
Labem, Obfiistvi, Duain and Hfiensko along the River Elbe. The control location
was upstream of the Husinec water reservoir at the river Blanice in the Vltava
basin (Fig. 1). The fish were captured in July 2003 (average water temperature
21.4 °C). In the control location, fish were captured in September 2003 (water
temperature 15 °C). In each location, eight chub (both males and females) were
captured (except in Lysa nad Labem where only 3 chub were captured).
ORGANIC POLLUTANT CONTAMINATION OF THE RIVER ELBE AS ASSESSED BY BIOCHEMICAL MARKERS
- The Project Material is available for download.
- The Research material is delivered within 15-30 Minutes.
- The Material is complete from Preliminary Pages to References.
- Well Researched and Approved for supervision.
- Click the download button below to get the complete project material.
Frequently Asked Questions
In-order to give you the best service available online, we have compiled frequently asked questions (FAQ) from our clients so as to answer them and make your visit much more interesting.
We are proudly Nigerians, and we are well aware of fraudulent activities that has been ongoing in the internet. To make it well known to our customers, we are geniune and duely registered with the Corporate Affairs Commission of the republic of Nigeria. Remember, Fraudulent sites can NEVER post bank accounts or contact address which contains personal information. Free chapter One is always given on the site to prove to you that we have the material. If you are unable to view the free chapter 1 send an email to firstname.lastname@example.org
with the subject head "FREE CHAPTER 1' plus the topic. You will get a free chapter 1 within an hour. You can also check out what our happy clients
have to say.
Students are always advised to use our materials as guide. However, if you have a different case study, you may need to consult one of our professional writers to help you with that. Depending on similarity of the organization/industry you may modify if you wish.
We have professional writers in various disciplines. If you have a fresh topic, just click Hire a Writer or click here
to fill the form and one of our writers will contact you shortly.
Yes it is a complete research project. We ensure that our client receives complete project materials which includes chapters 1-5, full references, questionnaires/secondary data, etc.
Depending on how fast your request is acknowledged by us, you will get the complete project material withing 15-30 minutes. However, on a very good day you can still get it within 5 minutes!
What Clients Say
Our Researchers are happy, see what they are saying. Share your own experience with the world.
Be polite and honest, as we seek to expand our business and reach more people. Thank you.
All Project Materials is a website I recommend to all student and researchers within and outside the country. The web owners are doing great job and I appreciate them for that. Once again welldone.
Thank you for everything you have done so far; my communication with you, both by e-mail and whatsapp, has been the only positive point about the whole experience - you have been reliable and courteous in my research work and I sincerely appreciate that.
I have been using you people for some time and I can say that you are good because you give me what I want, you don't disappoint. You guys to keep to the standard. You are highly recommended to serve more Researchers.
I love all project materials / researchcub.
There are good and wonderful. Nice Work!
People also search for:
organic pollutant contamination of the river elbe as assessed by biochemical markers, organic, pollutant, contamination project topics, researchcub.info, project topic, list of project topics, project topics and materials, research project topics, covid-19 project materials, all project topics, journals, books, Academic writer, animal science project topics.