METAPHOR AS INTELLECTUAL HISTORY: CONCEPTUAL CATEGORIES UNDERLYING FIGURATIVE USAGE IN AMERICAN ENGLISH FROM 1675-1975

METAPHOR AS INTELLECTUAL HISTORY: CONCEPTUAL CATEGORIES UNDERLYING FIGURATIVE USAGE IN AMERICAN ENGLISH FROM 1675-1975


1,966 marked this research material reliable.
Call or whatsapp: +2347063298784 or email: info@allprojectmaterials.com
Department: animal science project topics | Type: Project Topics | Project Topics and Materials | List of Project Topics | Research Project Materials | Journals | Thesis | Articles | Online Project Materials | Business Plan | Final year project topic | Format: Ms Word and PDF | Attribute: Documentation Only | Pages: 50 Pages | Chapters: Complete Research work from Chapter 1 to 5; All chapters | Inclusive: Abstract, Preliminary Pages, Table of Contents and Appendices | Cost: ₦ 5,000.00


METAPHOR AS INTELLECTUAL HISTORY: CONCEPTUAL CATEGORIES UNDERLYING FIGURATIVE USAGE IN AMERICAN ENGLISH FROM 1675-1975

PROJECT TOPICS AND MATERIALS ON METAPHOR AS INTELLECTUAL HISTORY: CONCEPTUAL CATEGORIES UNDERLYING FIGURATIVE USAGE IN AMERICAN ENGLISH FROM 1675-1975


The present analysis examined historical trends in figurative usage as revealed in the coding of 1,882 figures of speech derived from selections produced by 24 different American authors writing in the period from 1675 to 1975. Results indicated that different issues served as centres for metaphoric activity in each of the six 50-year periods considered, and that these concerns could be related to significant issues and events in American history. Results also revealed that different vehicles were used to make these issues metaphorical thereby supporting the view that an analysis of figurative language provides insights not only into issues considered problematic but also into issues considered well-known in specific historical eras. Implications for a general theory of metaphor were also derived from present results, particularly insofar as they suggest that metaphoric category-crossings defy logical analysis and can best be understood in terms of the psycholinguislic and historical situation of the speaker or writer. Finally, present results were also discussed in terms of Ullmann’s universal ‘laws’ of metaphoric transfer where they were seen as providing reasonable support for two of these principles (anthropomorphization and concretization) and lesser support for the remaining two (synaesthesia and animal reference). 4 In the Kennedy-Nixon debates of 1960, John F. Kennedy concluded his opening remarks by noting that The question is whether the world … will move in the direction of freedom … or … in the direction of slavery … I think it’s time America started moving again.’ Throughout all of his opening statement Kennedy had contrasted ‘moving forward’ with ‘standing still and, not surprisingly, Richard Nixon began his response to Kennedy’s remarks by noting There is no question but… this nation cannot stand still because we are in a deadly competition … We’re ahead in this competition as Senator Kennedy has implied, Linguistics 19 (1981), 911-935. 0024-3949/81/0019-0911 $2.00 © Mouton Publishers 912 M. K. Smith, H. R. Pollio and M. K. Pitts but when yoif re in a race the only way to stay ahead is to move ahead. (Cited in Pollio, Barlow, Fine and Pollio, 1977: 14) While it is interesting to note that Kennedy used the concept of movement only in a very general sense, Nixon’s use of a race metaphor (in which movement is combined with competition) seems quite revealing in the light of what we now know about his subsequent actions as president. The metaphor of a race not only reiterated Kennedy’s concern for change; it also introduced Nixon’s use of athletic metaphors for political actions, and through them, his implicit concerns about Opponents’ and “winning and losing’. Although other information could be gleaned from an analysis of figurative language in the Kennedy-Nixon debates, a more crucial point for the study of metaphor would seem to be that the specific metaphoric vehicle (race) used to capture a particular idea (international relations) tells a good deal of what Nixon saw as an important issue in the campaign and how he chose to express it. While it may be going too far to see a race metaphor as projective of Nixon’s general view of the world, it does not seem to be going too far to feel that unique insights about a speaker may be had by considering the specific images used to convey a difficult or emotional idea. Politics, however, is not the only domain in which metaphors express important ideas in a linguistically innovative way. Within more highly specialised domains, such as literature or science, metaphors not only name (or rename) pre-existing events or objects, they often serve to create new concepts as well. In poetry, for example, metaphors have been described as creating imaginary worlds (Ricoeur, 1977) whereas in science they have been conceptualized as leading to the development of a new theoretical orientation or model (Cassirer, 1946; Schon, 1963). In both domains the use of poetic language frequently signals the opening moments of a new or changed concept of reality brought about by a unique blending of the possibilities and ambiguities inherent in language. The hypothesis that metaphor and other figures of speech occur in the creating and/or describing phase of a new idea or concept is not a new one. Sperber, as long ago as 1930, noted that topics which produce intense feelings or in some sense are problematic become ‘centers of metaphoric attraction’. When this occurs, concepts and terminology from fields or domains thought to be more familiar or better understood are used to clarify the newly problematic subject. Alternatively, new topics or events, when experienced as sufficiently well understood, may themselves come to serve as metaphoric vehicles for areas still considered problematic. Sperber’s Law, as this insight has come to be called, thus suggests that Metaphor as intellectual history 913 the dominant concerns of an era may be reflected in its major metaphors and that these metaphors direct and constrain the course of intellectual analysis in that and subsequent historical periods. Indeed, Schon (1963) has gone so far as to propose that one way in which to understand the implicit intellectual forces shaping concepts in a particular historical period is to examine the metaphors used to express such concepts in the first place. On this basis, an analysis of metaphors may provide the ingredients for an intellectual history of a particular era or, more narrowly, of a particular group of concepts. To pursue this possibility in an empirically rigorous way two issues, one conceptual and one methodological, must be confronted. Conceptually, it is necessary to describe the nature of linguistic constraint operating on metaphoric activity. Although this issue has not been dealt with extensively, Ullmann (1962) has suggested metaphor follows one or more of four universal laws of semantic transfer: anthropomorphization; from abstract to concrete; from animals to other objects, events and/or people; and, finally, synaesthesia. Each of these tendencies is seen as significant in all language families and, therefore, must serve to constrain specific metaphoric transfers predicted on the basis of more concept-oriented analyses such as those suggested by Sperber and Schon. In our earlier example derived from the Kennedy-Nixon debates, Ullmann most likely would suggest that the abstract notion of ‘international relations’ was made metaphorically concrete through the vehicle of a race\ Methodologically, to come now to the second critical issue, it is necessary to develop a reasonably extensive corpus of novel metaphoric exemplars (covering a sufficiently extensive segment of history) and then code these exemplars into relatively explicit and reliable conceptual categories before meaningful statements can be made about the relationship of metaphoric topics to their instantiating vehicles. For purposes of the present analysis, an attempt was made to select representative figures used by major American writers in six different 50-year periods of U.S. history beginning in 1675 and ending in 1975. Once this collection was assembled, individual figures were analysed in terms of the specific subjects dealt with metaphorically as well as in terms of the specific vehicles us.ed to represent them. Within the context of this analysis, four specific questions were considered: 1. Could a classification system be developed that was sufficiently comprehensive as to encompass the variety of figurative subjects and vehicles sampled, and would this system relate to more traditional taxonomies (such as Ullmann’s) used in accounting for semantic change based on metaphoric transfer? 914 M. K. Smith, H. R. Pol Ho and M. K. Pitts 2. Would the occurrence of specific vehicle domains show systematic variations across different historical periods thereby permitting an evaluation of the role played by implicit metaphors in shaping thought? 3. Would the occurrence of specific topic domains, i.e. subjects, show systematic changes across various historical periods thereby permitting an evaluation of Sperber’s Law? 4. Would regularities occur in the specific vehicle and topic categories paired so as to support the hypothesis of universal rules for metaphoric transfer such as those proposed by Ullmann (1962)?

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE WORK FOR METAPHOR AS INTELLECTUAL HISTORY: CONCEPTUAL CATEGORIES UNDERLYING FIGURATIVE USAGE IN AMERICAN ENGLISH FROM 1675-1975


Additional Information

  • The Project Material is available for download.
  • The Research material is delivered within 15-30 Minutes.
  • The Material is complete from Preliminary Pages to References.
  • Well Researched and Approved for supervision.
  • Click the download button below to get the complete project material.

Frequently Asked Questions

In-order to give you the best service available online, we have compiled frequently asked questions (FAQ) from our clients so as to answer them and make your visit much more interesting.

We are proudly Nigerians, and we are well aware of fraudulent activities that has been ongoing in the internet. To make it well known to our customers, we are geniune and duely registered with the Corporate Affairs Commission of the republic of Nigeria. Remember, Fraudulent sites can NEVER post bank accounts or contact address which contains personal information. Free chapter One is always given on the site to prove to you that we have the material. If you are unable to view the free chapter 1 send an email to info@researchcub.info with the subject head "FREE CHAPTER 1' plus the topic. You will get a free chapter 1 within an hour. You can also check out what our happy clients have to say.


Students are always advised to use our materials as guide. However, if you have a different case study, you may need to consult one of our professional writers to help you with that. Depending on similarity of the organization/industry you may modify if you wish.


We have professional writers in various disciplines. If you have a fresh topic, just click Hire a Writer or click here to fill the form and one of our writers will contact you shortly.


Yes it is a complete research project. We ensure that our client receives complete project materials which includes chapters 1-5, full references, questionnaires/secondary data, etc.


Depending on how fast your request is acknowledged by us, you will get the complete project material withing 15-30 minutes. However, on a very good day you can still get it within 5 minutes!

What Clients Say

Our Researchers are happy, see what they are saying. Share your own experience with the world.
Be polite and honest, as we seek to expand our business and reach more people. Thank you.

A Research proposal for metaphor as intellectual history: conceptual categories underlying figurative usage in american english from 1675-1975:
Reviews: A Review on metaphor as intellectual history: conceptual categories underlying figurative usage in american english from 1675-1975, metaphor, intellectual, history project topics, researchcub.info, project topic, list of project topics, research project topics, journals, books, Academic writer.
The present analysis examined historical trends in figurative usage as revealed in the coding of 1,882 figures of speech derived from selections produced by 24 different American authors writing in the period from 1675 to 1975. Results indicated that different issues served as centres for metaphoric activity in each of the six 50-year periods considered, and that these concerns could be related to significant issues and events in American history. Results also revealed that different vehicles were used to make these issues metaphorical thereby supporting the view that an analysis of figurative language provides insights not only into issues considered problematic but also into issues considered well-known in specific historical eras. Implications for a general theory of metaphor were also derived from present results, particularly insofar as they suggest that metaphoric category-crossings defy logical analysis and can best be understood in terms of the psycholinguislic and historical situation of the speaker or writer. Finally, present results were also discussed in terms of Ullmann’s universal ‘laws’ of metaphoric transfer where they were seen as providing reasonable support for two of these principles (anthropomorphization and concretization) and lesser support for the remaining two (synaesthesia and animal reference). 4 In the Kennedy-Nixon debates of 1960, John F. Kennedy concluded his opening remarks by noting that The question is whether the world … will move in the dir.. animal science project topics

METAPHOR AS INTELLECTUAL HISTORY: CONCEPTUAL CATEGORIES UNDERLYING FIGURATIVE USAGE IN AMERICAN ENGLISH FROM 1675-1975

Project Information

Share Links

Download Post (MsWord)
Download Post (PDF)

Search for Project Topics

Project topics in Departments

How much does it cost to hire a writer in Nigeria?

Looking for Professional Approach and Quality Research Services ?

Estimating the cost of research writing in Nigeria: Freelance writers in Nigeria may charge anywhere from ₦5,000 to ₦50,000 or more per project, depending on the factors mentioned earlier. SEO-focused content may be on the higher end of this range due to the additional skills and research involved. For a more accurate estimate, it's recommended to reach out with us, discuss your specific requirements, and request a quote based on the scope of your project. Prices can vary, so getting personalized quotes will help you determine the cost more precisely.

Undergraduate Project Topics, economics project topics, marketing project topics, business administration project topics, engineering project topics, computer science project topics, banking & finance project topics, education project topics, law project topics, sciences project topics, public administration project topics, political science project topics, mathematics project topics, medical science project topics, mass communication project topics, research projects, geology project topics, marketing project topics, agriculture project topics, Browse Thousands of Final Year Project Topics, hire a writer, Research Works and Materials, Project topics and materials in Nigeria, Undergraduate Project Topics, Research Works and Materials, research topics, research project materials, complete project materials, computer science project material, free project topics, complete projects, accounting topics, small business topics, entrepreneurship topics, project materials, Nigerian undergraduate projects, business administration projects, computer science topics and projects, MBA Nigerian project topics, human resources, small businesses, entrepreneurship projects, economics projects, impacts projects, effect projects, university projects, polytechnic projects, investigate projects, political science projects, mass communication projects, project topics, human resource projects, education projects, French topics, project analysis, French projects, project tips, project abstract, project proposals, project bibliography, project reference, project seminar, forex, TSA, treasury single account, currency, naira, devaluation, undergraduate projects, final project research, marketing project topics, statistics project topics, mathematics project topics, statistics, mathematics, research projects, project thesis, labour force theses, NCE, OND, HND, BTECH, BSC, MBA, MSC, English projects, linguistic project topics, Free Project topics and materials in Nigeria, research topics, reseach project materials, computer science project material, free, complete, accounting topics, small business topics, materials, nigeria projects, business administration projects, computer science topics and projects, MBA nigeria project topics, human resources, small business, entrepreneurship projects, economics projects, impact projects, effects projects, training, budgets, ghana, university, polytechnic, browse Free project materials and topics in Nigeria, accounting and finance project materials, business administration project materials and topics, human resources, entrepreneurship, computer science and engineering project materials and topics, Accounting project topics, Accounting project topics and materials, Agricultural Economics Project Topics and Materials, Agricultural Science Projects topics and materials, All Project topics and materials, Architecture Project topics and materials, Aviation project topics and materials, Banking & Finance Projects topics and materials, Biology project and materials, Building project topics and materials, Business Administration & Management Projects topics and materials, Chemical Engineering Project Topics and materials, Civil Engineering Projects topics and materials, Communication & mass communication art project topics and materials, Computer Engineering Project Topics and materials, Computer Science Projects topics and materials, Criminology project topics and materials, Economics Research Projects topics and materials, Education Project Topics and Materials, Electrical Engineering Projects and materials, English Education & English Language Project topics and materials, Food Science project topics and materials, Geology Project Topics and materials, Guidance Counseling Project Topics and materials, History project topics and materials, Home Economics Project Topics and Materials, Human Resource Projects topics and Materials, Industrial Chemistry Projects topics and materials, Insurance Projects topics and materials, Law project topics and materials, Library and information science project topics and materials, Marine and Transport management project topics and materials, Marketing Projects topics and materials, Mathematics project topics and materials, Medical Sciences Project Topics and materials, Microbiology project topics and materials, Nursing and Midwifery project topics, Nursing and Midwifery project topics and materials, Optometry or nursing project topics and materials, Petroleum Engineering project topics and materials, Pharmacy project topics and materials, Philosophy project topics and materials, Photography project topics and materials, Physical and Health Education project topics and materials, Physiology project topics and materials, Political science project topics and materials, Project topics and materials, Psychology project topics and materials, Random project, Religious and Cultural Studies Project Topics and Materials, Sociology and Anthropology Project topics and materials, Sociology Project Topics and materials, Tourism project topics and materials, Vocational education project topics and materials. Project Topics: List of Project Topics | metaphor as intellectual history: conceptual categories underlying figurative usage in american english from 1675-1975 | metaphor | intellectual | history Project Topics | researchcub.info