THE IMPACT OF EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN ON THE APPLICATION OF GRAZING RESEARCH RESULTS: AN EXPOSITION.

THE IMPACT OF EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN ON THE APPLICATION OF GRAZING RESEARCH RESULTS: AN EXPOSITION.


2,060 marked this research material reliable.
Call or whatsapp: +2347063298784 or email: info@allprojectmaterials.com
Department: animal science project topics | Type: Project Topics | Project Topics and Materials | List of Project Topics | Research Project Materials | Journals | Thesis | Articles | Online Project Materials | Business Plan | Final year project topic | Format: Ms Word and PDF | Attribute: Documentation Only | Pages: 56 Pages | Chapters: Complete Research work from Chapter 1 to 5; All chapters | Inclusive: Abstract, Preliminary Pages, Table of Contents and Appendices | Cost: ₦ 5,000.00


THE IMPACT OF EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN ON THE APPLICATION OF GRAZING RESEARCH RESULTS: AN EXPOSITION.

PROJECT TOPICS AND MATERIALS ON THE IMPACT OF EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN ON THE APPLICATION OF GRAZING RESEARCH RESULTS: AN EXPOSITION.


Funding Bmitations often restrict pasture replication in grazing research on rangeland. Consequently, subsample error has been used to estimate treatment effects or characterize populations. Assumptions associated with experimental designs which utilize subsample error to make inferences are discussed and an example evaluated. The appropriate experImentaI unit for inferential grazing research is the pasture. Animals or vegetation aampIing within pastures must be considered as subsamples in inferential grazing research. Pasture replication must be used in intensive grazing trials to establish treatment dffferences or provide adequate characterization. Following intensive trials, extensive, unrepIicated trials implemented by private producers can be effective in estabIishIng broad-based applicability. Unreplicated pasture trIaIs may also be used for screening several treatments. Shrinking research budgets, increased competition for research dollars, and increased complexity of grazing research have contributed to efforts to enhance the efficiency of the research process. Additionally, range and pasture research competes with other research for land in organizations with finite land resources. Differentiating between efficiency of experimental design and the ability to make the proper characterization or inference is particularly important in range science. Minimizing cost in the experimental design process often is done at the expense of inference. Most books on experimental design or statistics provide few examples representing experimentation at the population, community, or ecosystem levels of organization (Hurlbert 1984). The principles of design for grazing studies are most often violated. It is the purpose of this discussion to explore some aspects of experimental design critical to evaluating efficiency and cost versus interpretive credibility of grazing research. Hurlbert (1984) defined experimental research as mensurative (sampling studies) or manipulative (external treatment). Mensurative experiments involve only the making of measurements at one or more points in space or time; space or time is the only experimental variable or “treatment”. Cochran (1977) provided an excellent review of sampling techniques for sampling studies. Manipulative experiments always involve two or more treatments and have as goals making one or more comparisons. Several references provide valuable information on the design of manipulative experiments (Federer 1955, Cochran and Cox 1957, Cox 1958). Measuring attributes of interest is important in both mensurative and manipulative experiments. There are several references available on measurement techniques (Brown 1954, U.S. Forest Service 1963, Greig-Smith 1964, Mueller-Dombois and Ellenberg 1974, ‘t Mennetge 1978, Stubbendieck and Schacht 1984, Cook and Stubbendieck 1986). Experiments can be inferential, providing information about a population; or they can be descriptive, providing information about specific individuals within a population. Inferential Grazing Trials Population of Inference The focal point of inferential research is the characterization of or inference about some population. Steel and Torrie (1980) defined a population as all possible values of a variable. The Authors are research animal scientist, USDA, ARS, Rt. 2, Box 144A, Booneville, Ark. 72927; professor, Department of Agronomy, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln 685834915. Manuscript accepted 8 August 1985. JOURNAL OF RANGE MANAGEMENT 39(3), May 1996 selected population of interest becomes the population of inference from which individuals are selected for experimentation. The population could be all native pastures in eastern Nebraska for a grazing study or all silty range sites in Vegetative Zone IV of Nebraska for a vegetative survey. Explicit definition of the population of inference must be made prior to the selection of the experimental material. If the population is well defined; means, variances, covariances, probabilities and other statistics generated from a research project can be properly interpreted. Once the population is defined, sample units can be selected within the appropriate experimental material. Sample units could be termed observational units in descriptive research and experimental units in experimental research. Experimental Unit A proper experimental design can be destroyed by failing to recognize what constitutes the experimental unit (Nelson and Rawlings 1983). According to Cox (1958) the experimental unit corresponds to the smallest division of experimental material such that any two units may (independently) receive different treatments in the actual experiment. Because responses are not constant in biological research, sample units should be chosen at all levels which can affect characterizations or responses. For example, treatment, pasture, animal, year of measurement, year of treatment, the failure of main effects to respond consistently within the grazing season, and appropriate interactions are all potential sources of variability in a manipulative grazing trial. Animals can be considered experimental units in mensurative and manipulative research trials in which the forage resource has no differential effect on the measured response. Breed comparisons, reproductive physiology, insect or parasite studies are examples of such studies. Prior knowledge is the basis for the assumption that pasture effects are negligible or of no interest. In identifying the animal as the experimental unit and not replicating pastures, the researcher foregoes the opportunity to evaluate potential pasture X treatment interactions. Animals in manipulative grazing research on rangeland are generally used as a treatment (e.g., stocking rate study) or as measures of treatment effect (e.g., gain/ head, gain/area). Freegrazing animals in range situations can seldom be considered as experimental units. Each animal must receive a treatment to be considered an experimental unit in manipulative research. In addition, each animal must be independent of other animals for the response measured. If forage availability or selection are important factors in the response variable, animals within a pasture cannot be considered independent. As an example, forage consumed by one animal cannot be consumed by another, implying a dependency. Thus, animals are actually repeated measures on the same experimental unit. The experimental unit of a production system in the measurement of animal production from grasslands must consist of an area of land and the animals grazing on it as well as auxiliary facilities for such management activities as supplemental feeding (Morley 1978). Pasture size and number is a critical consideration for research facilities with limited land resources. Pastures should be large enough to support adequate animal numbers to provide the precision in response measurements (Peterson and Lucas 1960). However, small pastures are more desirable than large, production-size pastures for intensive grazing trials since land is restricted.

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE WORK FOR THE IMPACT OF EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN ON THE APPLICATION OF GRAZING RESEARCH RESULTS: AN EXPOSITION.


Additional Information

  • The Project Material is available for download.
  • The Research material is delivered within 15-30 Minutes.
  • The Material is complete from Preliminary Pages to References.
  • Well Researched and Approved for supervision.
  • Click the download button below to get the complete project material.

Frequently Asked Questions

In-order to give you the best service available online, we have compiled frequently asked questions (FAQ) from our clients so as to answer them and make your visit much more interesting.

We are proudly Nigerians, and we are well aware of fraudulent activities that has been ongoing in the internet. To make it well known to our customers, we are geniune and duely registered with the Corporate Affairs Commission of the republic of Nigeria. Remember, Fraudulent sites can NEVER post bank accounts or contact address which contains personal information. Free chapter One is always given on the site to prove to you that we have the material. If you are unable to view the free chapter 1 send an email to info@researchcub.info with the subject head "FREE CHAPTER 1' plus the topic. You will get a free chapter 1 within an hour. You can also check out what our happy clients have to say.


Students are always advised to use our materials as guide. However, if you have a different case study, you may need to consult one of our professional writers to help you with that. Depending on similarity of the organization/industry you may modify if you wish.


We have professional writers in various disciplines. If you have a fresh topic, just click Hire a Writer or click here to fill the form and one of our writers will contact you shortly.


Yes it is a complete research project. We ensure that our client receives complete project materials which includes chapters 1-5, full references, questionnaires/secondary data, etc.


Depending on how fast your request is acknowledged by us, you will get the complete project material withing 15-30 minutes. However, on a very good day you can still get it within 5 minutes!

What Clients Say

Our Researchers are happy, see what they are saying. Share your own experience with the world.
Be polite and honest, as we seek to expand our business and reach more people. Thank you.

A Research proposal for the impact of experimental design on the application of grazing research results: an exposition.:
Reviews: A Review on the impact of experimental design on the application of grazing research results: an exposition., impact, experimental, design project topics, researchcub.info, project topic, list of project topics, research project topics, journals, books, Academic writer.
Funding Bmitations often restrict pasture replication in grazing research on rangeland. Consequently, subsample error has been used to estimate treatment effects or characterize populations. Assumptions associated with experimental designs which utilize subsample error to make inferences are discussed and an example evaluated. The appropriate experImentaI unit for inferential grazing research is the pasture. Animals or vegetation aampIing within pastures must be considered as subsamples in inferential grazing research. Pasture replication must be used in intensive grazing trials to establish treatment dffferences or provide adequate characterization. Following intensive trials, extensive, unrepIicated trials implemented by private producers can be effective in estabIishIng broad-based applicability. Unreplicated pasture trIaIs may also be used for screening several treatments. Shrinking research budgets, increased competition for research dollars, and increased complexity of grazing research have contributed to efforts to enhance the efficiency of the research process. Additionally, range and pasture research competes with other research for land in organizations with finite land resources. Differentiating between efficiency of experimental design and the ability to make the proper characterization or inference is particularly important in range science. Minimizing cost in the experimental design process often is done at the expense of inference. Most books on experimental de.. animal science project topics

THE IMPACT OF EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN ON THE APPLICATION OF GRAZING RESEARCH RESULTS: AN EXPOSITION.

Project Information

Share Links

Download Post (MsWord)
Download Post (PDF)

Search for Project Topics

Project topics in Departments

How much does it cost to hire a writer in Nigeria?

Looking for Professional Approach and Quality Research Services ?

Estimating the cost of research writing in Nigeria: Freelance writers in Nigeria may charge anywhere from ₦5,000 to ₦50,000 or more per project, depending on the factors mentioned earlier. SEO-focused content may be on the higher end of this range due to the additional skills and research involved. For a more accurate estimate, it's recommended to reach out with us, discuss your specific requirements, and request a quote based on the scope of your project. Prices can vary, so getting personalized quotes will help you determine the cost more precisely.

Undergraduate Project Topics, economics project topics, marketing project topics, business administration project topics, engineering project topics, computer science project topics, banking & finance project topics, education project topics, law project topics, sciences project topics, public administration project topics, political science project topics, mathematics project topics, medical science project topics, mass communication project topics, research projects, geology project topics, marketing project topics, agriculture project topics, Browse Thousands of Final Year Project Topics, hire a writer, Research Works and Materials, Project topics and materials in Nigeria, Undergraduate Project Topics, Research Works and Materials, research topics, research project materials, complete project materials, computer science project material, free project topics, complete projects, accounting topics, small business topics, entrepreneurship topics, project materials, Nigerian undergraduate projects, business administration projects, computer science topics and projects, MBA Nigerian project topics, human resources, small businesses, entrepreneurship projects, economics projects, impacts projects, effect projects, university projects, polytechnic projects, investigate projects, political science projects, mass communication projects, project topics, human resource projects, education projects, French topics, project analysis, French projects, project tips, project abstract, project proposals, project bibliography, project reference, project seminar, forex, TSA, treasury single account, currency, naira, devaluation, undergraduate projects, final project research, marketing project topics, statistics project topics, mathematics project topics, statistics, mathematics, research projects, project thesis, labour force theses, NCE, OND, HND, BTECH, BSC, MBA, MSC, English projects, linguistic project topics, Free Project topics and materials in Nigeria, research topics, reseach project materials, computer science project material, free, complete, accounting topics, small business topics, materials, nigeria projects, business administration projects, computer science topics and projects, MBA nigeria project topics, human resources, small business, entrepreneurship projects, economics projects, impact projects, effects projects, training, budgets, ghana, university, polytechnic, browse Free project materials and topics in Nigeria, accounting and finance project materials, business administration project materials and topics, human resources, entrepreneurship, computer science and engineering project materials and topics, Accounting project topics, Accounting project topics and materials, Agricultural Economics Project Topics and Materials, Agricultural Science Projects topics and materials, All Project topics and materials, Architecture Project topics and materials, Aviation project topics and materials, Banking & Finance Projects topics and materials, Biology project and materials, Building project topics and materials, Business Administration & Management Projects topics and materials, Chemical Engineering Project Topics and materials, Civil Engineering Projects topics and materials, Communication & mass communication art project topics and materials, Computer Engineering Project Topics and materials, Computer Science Projects topics and materials, Criminology project topics and materials, Economics Research Projects topics and materials, Education Project Topics and Materials, Electrical Engineering Projects and materials, English Education & English Language Project topics and materials, Food Science project topics and materials, Geology Project Topics and materials, Guidance Counseling Project Topics and materials, History project topics and materials, Home Economics Project Topics and Materials, Human Resource Projects topics and Materials, Industrial Chemistry Projects topics and materials, Insurance Projects topics and materials, Law project topics and materials, Library and information science project topics and materials, Marine and Transport management project topics and materials, Marketing Projects topics and materials, Mathematics project topics and materials, Medical Sciences Project Topics and materials, Microbiology project topics and materials, Nursing and Midwifery project topics, Nursing and Midwifery project topics and materials, Optometry or nursing project topics and materials, Petroleum Engineering project topics and materials, Pharmacy project topics and materials, Philosophy project topics and materials, Photography project topics and materials, Physical and Health Education project topics and materials, Physiology project topics and materials, Political science project topics and materials, Project topics and materials, Psychology project topics and materials, Random project, Religious and Cultural Studies Project Topics and Materials, Sociology and Anthropology Project topics and materials, Sociology Project Topics and materials, Tourism project topics and materials, Vocational education project topics and materials. Project Topics: List of Project Topics | the impact of experimental design on the application of grazing research results: an exposition. | impact | experimental | design Project Topics | researchcub.info