Students’ learning in
tertiary institutions all over the world has undergone tremendous
transformations, especially since the advent of Information and Communication
Technology (ICT). There is a shift from the traditional approach of teacher
directed/didactic to modern method where computer technology plays a
significant role. ICT has promoted learning and made it more meaningful where
students can stay even in their homes or classrooms and receive lecturers
without seeing the lecturer. The aspect of ICT that has brought about this
revolution in students’ learning is e-learning.
explained by Open Learning Centre (2007) is an educational resource that helps
in effective teaching and learning process created through combining e-digital
content with local community and tutor support along with global community
engagement. It is also an effective and efficient system of self-paced personal
training available over the internet. The Commission of Technology and Adult
(2001) defined e-learning as instructional content or learning experiences
delivered or enabled by electronic technology. Also, Erah (2006) stated that
the term e-learning refers to computer-enhanced training as opposed to the
computer-based training of the 1980s. It is usually delivered through personal
computers and includes learning delivered by other communication technologies.
The devices often
used for this purpose include:- laptops or personal computers, CD ROMs.
Television, Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs). MP3 players and mobile phones.
Communication technologies enable the use of internet e-mail, discussion forms,
collaborative software, classroom management software, team learning systems,
intranet, extranet, Local Area Network (LAN), Wide Area Network (WAN), audio
and videotapes, satellite down links, computerized diagnostic assessment,
competency certification and electronic portfolios (Asogwa, 2006).
E-learning is based
on electronic formats (Bodys, 2005). It can benefit any students or teacher
irrespective of the background. E-learning is a major issue in pedagogy of
individualized instruction, self pace study etc, which is; adapting the
teaching to the needs of various learners. E-learning provides this by making
available the required learning materials for teaching of these vocational
subjects which eventually leads to increased graduation rates and lower failure
rates of students.
Finally, it promotes
equity by providing students with access to courses which may not ordinarily be
available and providing teachers with materials for teaching (Asogwa, 2006).
CONCEPT OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION
Initially in business
and other organizations, internal reporting was produced manually and only
periodically, as by-product of the accounting system and with some additional
statistic(s) and gave limited and delayed information on management
performance. Data was organized manually according to the requirements and
necessity of the organization. As computational technology developed,
information began to be distinguished from data and systems were developed to
produce and organize abstractions, summaries, relationships and generalizations
based on the data.