Pig is one of the domestic animals found in Nigeria and
most parts of West Africa. Pigs are reared for the production of meat
called pork and fat called lard. The pig produces litters twice a
year. One litter or one birth give between eight (8) and sixteen (16)
piglets. They also eat anything that is edible when given. Although,
the rearing of pig and its consumption is not popular in Moslems areas
in Nigeria because of the religion. Some people look at pigs as dirty
animal usually found in muddy water, the meat is also believed to be
responsible for the carrying of tapeworm, to human beings. This is
probably responsible for some people prefer meat from other animal to
pig meat. The breeds of pigs now reared in Nigeria include those that
are native to Nigeria and the one brought from other countries such as
Britain and United States of America.
Local West Africa Dwarf Pig:
This breed are kept by the local farmers in villages and towns in
southern parts of Nigeria. It is small in size and usually black or
brown in colour. It lives in dirty environment, and eats anything that
comes it way. The breed is a native to West Africa.
This is a popular meat producing pig in Nigeria. It is white in colour
with average size, it is resistant to trypanosomiasis disease, hence
found in Southern Nigeria – the pigs is a native to America.
race: This is larger than other breeds of pig. It has white hairs and
skin. Land race has ears which are pointing forward. The animal has
very good meat. It originated from Norway. Duroc: The pig has large
body. The colour is golden yellow or cherry red. It has droopy ears.
The animal come from U.S.A.
Large Black: The animal is black in colour with droopy ear. It is a god meat (pork) producer and came from U.S.A.
White: The pig has white skin, the ears are droopy and heavier than
duroc. It can produce many offspring in one birth. It originated from
Pennsylvania in U.S.A
Tamworth: the animal has red colour, large head, small legs and slim body. It is a native of Ireland.
PRODUCTION STRATEGIES (MANAGEMENT)
There are three (3) major production strategies which are as follows:
(1) intensive management practices
Semi-intensive management practice and/or free range management
practices. Pigs are very prolific animals whose rate of
production is better than most other domestic animals. Pigs have a high
conversion rate of 1:5 of the Gross energy taken. They are able to
convert compounded fats into meat more cheaply and rapidly than most
other domestic animal. Pork carcass yields a high percentage of dressed
meat and a high portion of edible parts.
Pork is a good
source of animal protein. It is high in energy, attractive,
nutritious, tasty and tender. This is apparently due to the fact that
slaughter animal are young, so, because of these development concerning
pork meat, many business men and women have since seize the opportunity
to go into the venture as marketing (trading), and consumption of pork
meat, but that not withstanding, the safety aspect must not be
neglected, and those who sale the meat pork and those consuming the
Meat inspection is commonly perceive as the
sanitary control of slaughter animal and meat with the purpose of
providing safe and wholesome meat for human consumption and to ensure
that only apparently healthy, physiologically normal one are slaughter
for human consumption and abnormal animals are separated and dealt with
accordingly. The responsibility of achieving this objectives
lies primarily with the relevant public/private health authority, the
problem associated with the meat production, centres on the role and
functional effectiveness of the heath ministry, yet the observing
thought that has become all too evident in the year past is that,
increase in meat production alone is not the answer. This is so, partly
because such an increase is sometimes supported without appropriate
pre-slaughter/post slaughter measure and safety status of animal which
should be properly tackled and taking into consideration.
many countries of the world, meat inspection lack the necessary
information and guideline to access the sanitary status of animal, meat
from slaughter animal (FAO, 1998) and the Food and Agriculture
Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in collaboration with the World
Health Organization (WHO) approved the foundation of the international
commission of codex Alimentarius to establish a joined program on food
regulation (FAO, 2003).
The Codex Alimentarius, has
turned into the reference point for food businessmen, industrialist,
traders and consumers, it is the guide for the international, national
organization in charge of the products’ control for the elaboration of
the internal quality regulation of food, for protecting the consumers
health at local, regional, national and world scale (FAO, 2003). World
Health Organization has therefore endeavour to prepare a concise
guideline on the subject together with colour illustration demonstrating
the pathological lesion that many occur in pigs, bovines, small
ruminant, poultry etc, the statement was made on the judgment of disease
carcasses or part of the carcasses are recommendation, which are
influenced by the need of salvaging as much meat as possible for human
consumption and that abnormal animal should be separated appropriately
and dealt with accordingly. To ensure that animal or meat (from
abattoir) are free from disease, wholesome and possess no-threat to
human (WHO, 2003).
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The problem which the study seeks to address is the issue
of consumer safety. The concern is that meat should not predisposes
man to food born diseases. The research questions are:
a. To estimate the determinant of food safety.
b. To identify the food safety practice.
c. To estimate the cost of food safety.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The general objectives of the study is to examine the
safety issues associated with pork meat marketing in the study area.
The specific objectives are:
1. To identify the socio-economic characteristics of the pork marketers.
2. To identify safety practices adopted by pork seller in the study area to guarantee consumers safety.
3. To estimate the determinant of pork meat consumer safety in the study area.
JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY
This study seeks to accomplish and increase awareness and
knowledge, on how to provide wholesome meat for human consumption, and
the need to position the general public, inspection/health ministry and
of course, the abattoir operators of their call to duties instead of the
negligence that has become a course for concern, owing to disease
threat and it related condition. And also, because of deformed nature
of the appropriate agencies and ministry, the abattoir operator has
cease the opportunity to slaughter sick animal and disease management
history. And on the other, the small retailers in our various market
has not meet up with their safety security measures. This study is
therefore meant not only to bring to our minds the pre-cautionary
measures, but safety consciousness, the appropriate ministries, and to
remind them of their responsibilities, why the general public should be
aware also that wholesome meat and its consumption is their right to
life. The wholesomeness of meat and their consumption should spur us to
imbibe the spirit of food security for a better and happier living.