BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Teaching is the art
of imparting knowledge. It is the process by which a teacher guides the learners
in the acquisition of knowledge, skills and attitudes. Teaching is essentially
a system of interactions involving the teacher, the learner and the learning
materials. In the previous past, the ultimate goal of education was to develop
the three Rs in the students (Reading, Writing and Arithmetic). Education has
since expanded to bring about learning other disciplines. The purpose of
teaching is manifold. Teaching is undertaken to bring about learning, that is,
a desirable change in behaviour, of the learners. To teach is to engage
students in learning. Teaching is about getting students involved in the active
construction of knowledge. According to Isangedighi (2011), good teaching then
requires a commitment to bring about learning. The aim of teaching is not only
to transmit information, but also to transform students from passive recipients
of other people’s knowledge into active constructors of their own knowledge.
Learning is the relatively permanent
change in a persons
knowledge or behavior due to experience. This definition has three components:
1) the duration of the change is long-term rather than short-term; 2) the locus
of the change is the content and structure of knowledge in memory or the
behavior of the learner; 3) the cause of the change is the learners experience in the
environment rather than fatigue, motivation, drugs, physical condition or
Learning in Encyclopedia of Educational Research, Richard E. Mayer
instructional processes, teacher would want to find out if the objectives of
the lesson are being achieved by assessing the student. Based on the work of
many scholars (Delclos, Vye, Burns, Bransford, & Hasselbring, 1992;
Poehner, 2007), assessment is defined as a process for documenting, in
measurable terms, the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and beliefs of the learner.
students learning is the
process of evaluating the extent to which participants in education have
developed their knowledge, understanding and abilities. Although this
definition of assessment is rather straightforward, the process of assessment
in the classroom is complex. At the classroom level, teachers must decide which
specific knowledge, skills, attitudes, and beliefs warrant assessment; at what
point and for what specific purpose they should be assessed; and which tools
might best accomplish these classroom-based assessments. This research
addresses two forms of assessment, formative and summative.
What makes formative
assessment formative is that it is immediately used to make adjustments.
Formative assessment is a process through which assessment-elicited evidence of
student learning is gathered and instruction is modified in response to
feedback. (Cauley, Richmond & McMillan, 2010). The common thread woven
throughout formative assessment research, articles and books bears repeating:
it is not the instrument that is formative; it is the use of the information
gathered, by whatever means, to adjust teaching and learning, that merits the
formative label (Cauley, Richmond & McMillan, 2010). Formative assessment
occurs much more frequently, often within a lesson or unit, and allows a
student to practice their knowledge, adjust, modify and grow from constructive
In the classroom,
assessment formally carried out through assignments, tests, quizzes,
performances, projects, and surveys; or informally through questioning and
dialogue, observing, and anecdotal note taking. In any of these instances, an
individual may or may not be engaged in formative assessment: the determining
factor is not the type of assessment used, but rather how students use the
information (Cauley, Richmond &McMillan, 2010).
is most effective when students have a clear idea of what teachers expect of
them. Stiggins (2005, 2007) notes that when students have clear learning
targets and models of strong and weak student work, and when feedback is
continuous, students have a foundation that helps them to understand what they
are learning, set goals, and self-assess. These formative assessment practices
encourage students and give them a greater sense of ownership in instructional
When the information
from an assessment is used solely to make a judgment about level of competence
or achievement, it is a summative assessment. At the classroom level, an
assessment is summative when it is given to determine how much students have
learned at a particular point in time, for the purpose of communicating
achievement status to others. The communication usually takes the form of a
symbol, a letter grade or number, or a comparison to a standard such as meets
the Standard or Proficient, that is reported to students and eventually to
parents. (Directions for Assessment in New Zealand, 2009). Feedback is very
important after any form of assessment.
Reports from previous
studies (Babayemi, 2014) and examination showed that students academic performance
in Basic science and Technology is not consistent (Federal Ministry of
Education, Research Statistics and Planning Section, 2013). The academic
performance of students in Basic Science and Technology has been a major
concern to administrators, educators, teachers and parents. This is because it
is at the basic level of education that, the foundation of building sound scientists
and technologists begins. If the foundation is not well developed, then,
achievements at other levels of educational pursuits will be worrisome. The low
academic performance of students in science and technology fields at the higher
levels is an indication of a faulty foundation Basic Science and Technology at
upper basic education level of Junior Secondary Schools. Basic science, like
any other subject, has its own peculiar terms, and therefore, needs special
attention to be mastered by learners at the basic level of education. But the
situation is not encouraging as there is a low academic performance of students
in the subject (Cornelius-Ukpepi, Esu & Ndifon, 2017).
The problem of low
academic performance among students has led experts and all stakeholders in
education to research into possible causes of this disheartening problem
(Nwadinigwe & Azuka-Obieke, 2012). One of the probable cause is feedback.
When providing feedback to a student, a teacher is essentially giving
information about the student´s performance or understanding (Hattie &
Timperlay, 2007). Teachers should use feedback to try to reduce the gap between
the students understanding and actual performance and how the teacher wants him
to perform or develop (Hattie, 2009).
Research has shown
feedback to be among the most powerful and effective influences on students’
achievement (Hattie, 2009) as well as an important component of the pedagogical
process (Brookhart, 2008). Since it links teachers practice to students learning needs
(Bayley & Gamer, 2010). There is a vast amount of research that identifies
the characteristics of effective feedback and feedback that is not effective or
has a negative effect on learning (Sendziuk, 2010; Brookhart, 2012; Hattie,
2012; Wiggins, 2012; Thurlings, Vermeulen, Bastiaens & Stijnen, 2013). Many
teachers claim to provide their students lots of feedback, however, the real
question is whether the students receive, understand and act on it.
Mixed reports abound
from fields of research on gender as it affects students’ learning outcomes.
Some researchers report a decline in gender differences in science achievement
(Afuwape & Oludipe, 2008; Yuwen, 2008). Others find significant main effect
of gender on subjects’ learning outcomes in science. Babayemi (2014) find in
his studies that male students achieved significantly better than female in
Basic Science. In a related study conducted by Babayemi and Ahmed (2019), this
researcher also showed that male performed better in academic achievement than
their female counterpart in Basic Science. While in the studies carried out by
Soltani and Nasrl (2010), girls performed better than boys in science subjects.
Since there are conflicting reports from various studies, there should
therefore be further studies on the influence of gender on students’ learning
With all these
research efforts, it seems as if the performance is still not really
encouraging. Researchers in education are making concerted effort to proffer
solution to this disheartening problem in Basic science and Technology. Basic
science and Technology as important as the subject is to scientific and
technological development of the nation and as a foundational subject is faced
with the problem of low students’ learning outcomes. It means that the foundation
of the scientific and development of this nation seems a mess unless solution
is proffered to solve this worrisome academic problem.
Researcher made some
suggestions or recommendation such as the use of appropriate teaching strategy,
use of instructional materials among others. They tried to correct some
psychological problems students could face and inhibit their learning or their
performance. Despite these efforts of previous researchers and the problem of
low academic performance still persists, further research still needs to be
investigated. For this reason, this study investigated on effects of feedback
on students’ academic performance in Basic science and Technology
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
meaningful feedback is a cornerstone of learning. Without it, assessment
becomes only a measure of failure rather than a tool of learning. However, it
is highly disheartening that most teachers are not really giving feedback the
attention it deserves. Previous studies showed that when feedback is given at
the appropriate time without being unnecessarily delayed, students can use it
to judge their academic progress and maintain adjustment where necessary. As
some literature showed that some teachers give regular feedback, some other
teachers do not give at all and some other teacher delayed. Therefore, this
study investigates Feedback as Predictor of Students’ Academic Achievement in
Basic Science and Technology
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The study sought to
determined Feedback as Predictor of Students’ Academic Achievement in Basic
Science and Technology in Mkpat Enin Local Government Area. Specifically, the
in the mean ratings of male and female Basic Science and Technology in how
frequent feedback was given to students.
frequent the teacher gives feedback to JSS2 Basic Science and Technology
students in Mkpat Enin Local Government Area.
difference in academic performance of students that were given immediate and
nature of relationship between feedback and students academic performance in
Basic Science and Technology
What is the
difference in the mean ratings of male and female Basic Science and Technology
on how frequent feedback was given to students?
How frequent does the
teacher gives feedback to JSS2 Basic Science and Technology students in Mkpat
Enin Local Government Area?
What difference exist
in the academic performance of Basic Science and Technology students that were
given immediate and delayed feedback?
What is the
relationship between feedback and students academic performance in Basic Science
STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESES
There is no
significant difference in the mean ratings of male and female Basic Science and
Technology students on how frequent feedback was given to students.
There is no
significant difference in the academic performance of Basic Science and
Technology students that were given immediate and delayed feedback.
There is no
significant relationship between feedback and academic performance of students
in Basic Science and Technology.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The outcome of this
study would help inform teachers of Basic Science and Technology on the role of
feedback on students performance. It would also inform stakeholders in drawing
up policies which would help promote effective feedback delivery in Basic
Science and Technology.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study is limited
to JSS2 Basic Science and Technology students. This study will cover four
schools in Mkpat Enin Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
The following terms
and variable are defined as used in the study:-
is a process in which learners make sense of information about their
performance and use it to enhance the quality of their work or learning
Achievement in Basic
Science and Technology:- These are the scores obtained from the administration
of Basic Science Achievement Test.
Gender:- The state of
being male or female