FEEDBACK AS PREDICTOR OF STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN BASIC SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY


FEEDBACK AS PREDICTOR OF STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN BASIC SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

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FEEDBACK AS PREDICTOR OF STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN BASIC SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Teaching is the art of imparting knowledge. It is the process by which a teacher guides the learners in the acquisition of knowledge, skills and attitudes. Teaching is essentially a system of interactions involving the teacher, the learner and the learning materials. In the previous past, the ultimate goal of education was to develop the three Rs in the students (Reading, Writing and Arithmetic). Education has since expanded to bring about learning other disciplines. The purpose of teaching is manifold. Teaching is undertaken to bring about learning, that is, a desirable change in behaviour, of the learners. To teach is to engage students in learning. Teaching is about getting students involved in the active construction of knowledge. According to Isangedighi (2011), good teaching then requires a commitment to bring about learning. The aim of teaching is not only to transmit information, but also to transform students from passive recipients of other people’s knowledge into active constructors of their own knowledge.

“Learning is the relatively permanent change in a person’s knowledge or behavior due to experience. This definition has three components: 1) the duration of the change is long-term rather than short-term; 2) the locus of the change is the content and structure of knowledge in memory or the behavior of the learner; 3) the cause of the change is the learner’s experience in the environment rather than fatigue, motivation, drugs, physical condition or physiologic intervention.”–From Learning in Encyclopedia of Educational Research, Richard E. Mayer

During classroom instructional processes, teacher would want to find out if the objectives of the lesson are being achieved by assessing the student. Based on the work of many scholars (Delclos, Vye, Burns, Bransford, & Hasselbring, 1992; Poehner, 2007), assessment is defined as a process for documenting, in measurable terms, the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and beliefs of the learner. “Assessment of students’ learning is the process of evaluating the extent to which participants in education have developed their knowledge, understanding and abilities. Although this definition of assessment is rather straightforward, the process of assessment in the classroom is complex. At the classroom level, teachers must decide which specific knowledge, skills, attitudes, and beliefs warrant assessment; at what point and for what specific purpose they should be assessed; and which tools might best accomplish these classroom-based assessments. This research addresses two forms of assessment, formative and summative.

What makes formative assessment formative is that it is immediately used to make adjustments. Formative assessment is a process through which assessment-elicited evidence of student learning is gathered and instruction is modified in response to feedback. (Cauley, Richmond & McMillan, 2010). The common thread woven throughout formative assessment research, articles and books bears repeating: it is not the instrument that is formative; it is the use of the information gathered, by whatever means, to adjust teaching and learning, that merits the formative label (Cauley, Richmond & McMillan, 2010). Formative assessment occurs much more frequently, often within a lesson or unit, and allows a student to practice their knowledge, adjust, modify and grow from constructive feedback.

In the classroom, assessment formally carried out through assignments, tests, quizzes, performances, projects, and surveys; or informally through questioning and dialogue, observing, and anecdotal note taking. In any of these instances, an individual may or may not be engaged in formative assessment: the determining factor is not the type of assessment used, but rather how students use the information (Cauley, Richmond &McMillan, 2010).

Formative assessment is most effective when students have a clear idea of what teachers expect of them. Stiggins (2005, 2007) notes that when students have clear learning targets and models of strong and weak student work, and when feedback is continuous, students have a foundation that helps them to understand what they are learning, set goals, and self-assess. These formative assessment practices encourage students and give them a greater sense of ownership in instructional activities.

When the information from an assessment is used solely to make a judgment about level of competence or achievement, it is a summative assessment. At the classroom level, an assessment is summative when it is given to determine how much students have learned at a particular point in time, for the purpose of communicating achievement status to others. The communication usually takes the form of a symbol, a letter grade or number, or a comparison to a standard such as meets the Standard or Proficient, that is reported to students and eventually to parents. (Directions for Assessment in New Zealand, 2009). Feedback is very important after any form of assessment.

Reports from previous studies (Babayemi, 2014) and examination showed that students’ academic performance in Basic science and Technology is not consistent (Federal Ministry of Education, Research Statistics and Planning Section, 2013). The academic performance of students in Basic Science and Technology has been a major concern to administrators, educators, teachers and parents. This is because it is at the basic level of education that, the foundation of building sound scientists and technologists begins. If the foundation is not well developed, then, achievements at other levels of educational pursuits will be worrisome. The low academic performance of students in science and technology fields at the higher levels is an indication of a faulty foundation Basic Science and Technology at upper basic education level of Junior Secondary Schools. Basic science, like any other subject, has its own peculiar terms, and therefore, needs special attention to be mastered by learners at the basic level of education. But the situation is not encouraging as there is a low academic performance of students in the subject (Cornelius-Ukpepi, Esu & Ndifon, 2017).

The problem of low academic performance among students has led experts and all stakeholders in education to research into possible causes of this disheartening problem (Nwadinigwe & Azuka-Obieke, 2012). One of the probable cause is feedback. When providing feedback to a student, a teacher is essentially giving information about the student´s performance or understanding (Hattie & Timperlay, 2007). Teachers should use feedback to try to reduce the gap between the students understanding and actual performance and how the teacher wants him to perform or develop (Hattie, 2009).

Research has shown feedback to be among the most powerful and effective influences on students’ achievement (Hattie, 2009) as well as an important component of the pedagogical process (Brookhart, 2008). Since it links teachers’ practice to students’ learning needs (Bayley & Gamer, 2010). There is a vast amount of research that identifies the characteristics of effective feedback and feedback that is not effective or has a negative effect on learning (Sendziuk, 2010; Brookhart, 2012; Hattie, 2012; Wiggins, 2012; Thurlings, Vermeulen, Bastiaens & Stijnen, 2013). Many teachers claim to provide their students lots of feedback, however, the real question is whether the students receive, understand and act on it.

Mixed reports abound from fields of research on gender as it affects students’ learning outcomes. Some researchers report a decline in gender differences in science achievement (Afuwape & Oludipe, 2008; Yuwen, 2008). Others find significant main effect of gender on subjects’ learning outcomes in science. Babayemi (2014) find in his studies that male students achieved significantly better than female in Basic Science. In a related study conducted by Babayemi and Ahmed (2019), this researcher also showed that male performed better in academic achievement than their female counterpart in Basic Science. While in the studies carried out by Soltani and Nasrl (2010), girls performed better than boys in science subjects. Since there are conflicting reports from various studies, there should therefore be further studies on the influence of gender on students’ learning outcomes.

With all these research efforts, it seems as if the performance is still not really encouraging. Researchers in education are making concerted effort to proffer solution to this disheartening problem in Basic science and Technology. Basic science and Technology as important as the subject is to scientific and technological development of the nation and as a foundational subject is faced with the problem of low students’ learning outcomes. It means that the foundation of the scientific and development of this nation seems a mess unless solution is proffered to solve this worrisome academic problem.

Researcher made some suggestions or recommendation such as the use of appropriate teaching strategy, use of instructional materials among others. They tried to correct some psychological problems students could face and inhibit their learning or their performance. Despite these efforts of previous researchers and the problem of low academic performance still persists, further research still needs to be investigated. For this reason, this study investigated on effects of feedback on students’ academic performance in Basic science and Technology

 

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Frequent and meaningful feedback is a cornerstone of learning. Without it, assessment becomes only a measure of failure rather than a tool of learning. However, it is highly disheartening that most teachers are not really giving feedback the attention it deserves. Previous studies showed that when feedback is given at the appropriate time without being unnecessarily delayed, students can use it to judge their academic progress and maintain adjustment where necessary. As some literature showed that some teachers give regular feedback, some other teachers do not give at all and some other teacher delayed. Therefore, this study investigates Feedback as Predictor of Students’ Academic Achievement in Basic Science and Technology

1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The study sought to determined Feedback as Predictor of Students’ Academic Achievement in Basic Science and Technology in Mkpat Enin Local Government Area. Specifically, the study:

Determined difference in the mean ratings of male and female Basic Science and Technology in how frequent feedback was given to students.

Determined how frequent the teacher gives feedback to JSS2 Basic Science and Technology students in Mkpat Enin Local Government Area.

Determined the difference in academic performance of students that were given immediate and delayed feedback.

Established the nature of relationship between feedback and students academic performance in Basic Science and Technology

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION

What is the difference in the mean ratings of male and female Basic Science and Technology on how frequent feedback was given to students?

How frequent does the teacher gives feedback to JSS2 Basic Science and Technology students in Mkpat Enin Local Government Area?

What difference exist in the academic performance of Basic Science and Technology students that were given immediate and delayed feedback?

What is the relationship between feedback and students academic performance in Basic Science and Technology?

1.5 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESES

There is no significant difference in the mean ratings of male and female Basic Science and Technology students on how frequent feedback was given to students.

There is no significant difference in the academic performance of Basic Science and Technology students that were given immediate and delayed feedback.

There is no significant relationship between feedback and academic performance of students in Basic Science and Technology.

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The outcome of this study would help inform teachers of Basic Science and Technology on the role of feedback on students performance. It would also inform stakeholders in drawing up policies which would help promote effective feedback delivery in Basic Science and Technology.

1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This study is limited to JSS2 Basic Science and Technology students. This study will cover four schools in Mkpat Enin Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State.

1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS

The following terms and variable are defined as used in the study:-

Feedback:- Feedback is a process in which learners make sense of information about their performance and use it to enhance the quality of their work or learning strategies.

Achievement in Basic Science and Technology:- These are the scores obtained from the administration of Basic Science Achievement Test.

Gender:- The state of being male or female

FEEDBACK AS PREDICTOR OF STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN BASIC SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

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Teaching is the art of imparting knowledge. It is the process by which a teacher guides the learners in the acquisition of knowledge, skills and attitudes. Teaching is essentially a system of interactions involving the teacher, the learner and the learning materials. In the previous past, the ultimate goal of education was to develop the three Rs in the students (Reading, Writing and Arithmetic). Education has since expanded to bring about learning other disciplines. The purpose of teaching is manifold. Teaching is undertaken to bring about learning, that is, a desirable change in behaviour, of the learners. To teach is to engage students in learning. Teaching is about getting students involved in the active construction of knowledge. According to Isangedighi (2011), good teaching then requires a commitment to bring about learning. The aim of teaching is not only to transmit information, but also to transform students from passive recipients of other people’s knowledge into active constructors of their own knowledge. “Learning is the relatively permanent change in a person’s knowledge or behavior due to experience. This definition has three components: 1) the duration of the change is long-term rather than short-term; 2) the locus of the change is the content and structure of knowledge in memory or the behavior of the learner; 3) the cause of the change is the learner’s experience in the environment rather than fatigue, motivation, drugs, physical condition or physiologic in.. agronomy project topics

FEEDBACK AS PREDICTOR OF STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN BASIC SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

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