ECONOMICS OF SOIL CONSERVATION PRACTICES AMONG SMALL SCALE FARMERS IN ENUGU STATE


ECONOMICS OF SOIL CONSERVATION PRACTICES AMONG SMALL SCALE FARMERS IN ENUGU STATE

Type: Project Materials | Format: Ms Word | Attribute: Documentation Only | Pages: 65 Pages | Chapters: 1-5 chapters | Price: ₦ 3,000.00

1,856 marked this research material reliable.
Call or whatsapp: +2347063298784 or email: info@allprojectmaterials.com
ECONOMICS OF SOIL CONSERVATION PRACTICES AMONG SMALL SCALE FARMERS IN ENUGU STATE

ABSTRACT

The study investigated the economics of soil conservation practices among small-scale farmers in Enugu State. The study used multi-stage random probability sampling method and the primary data were collected form 120 farmers using structured questionnaire. Data on the socio-economic status of the farmers, forms of land/soil degradation in the study area, methods/ technologies used in combating them, intensity of adoption of selected soil conservation practices, costs and benefits of selected methods of conserving the soil and constraints to adoption of soil conservation practices were obtained. Data obtained were analyzed using percentages, cost-benefit analysis and multiple regression analysis. Based on the 2007/2008 cropping season, it was noted that male (70%) were more involved in soil conservation practices than female (30%). Most of the farmers (61%) had no formal education. Land acquisition was mostly through inheritance (77%). Fifty three percent of the farmers have been in active farming for about 21 – 30 years. Membership of farm organization by farmers was still low (16%). It is noted that 60% of the farmers had never been visited by the extension agents. The major form of soil/land degradation identified in the study area is reduced soil fertility (41%) Majority (43%) of the farmers said that the methods of soil conservation used are indigenous to them. The prevalent soil/land management forms in the study area  are inorganic fertilizer, livestock  manuring, intercropping, cover cropping and leaving crop residue. The study showed the guiding factors to adoption of soil conservation technologies/ methods by respondents as improved yield (return), access to credit, concern for soil erosion and other related soil problems, ownership of land, climatic change, and capital access. The study indicated that out of the thirteen  (13) methods of soil conservation mostly used, 77% of the farmers adopted between 1-6 methods. This showed that the intensity of adoption is relatively low. The farmers that used intercropping, inorganic fertilizer, cover cropping, leaving crop residue an livestock manure combination as method of soil conservation have the highest gross margin of N36750 and benefit-cost of 2.18. The effect/ relationship between farmers’ socio-economic characteristics and intensity of adoption of soil conservation practices showed a coefficient of determination, R2 of 63.2% which was a good fit. The test of influence of the socio-economic characteristics of on farmer’s adoption intensity shows that these characteristics have significant influence on adoption intensity at 5%. There is a significant correlation between the benefits and the cost of soil conservation practices(r-0.936, p<0.05). Access to credit, small farm size, and lack of trainings, poor infrastructure and poor returns were the major constraints to adoption of soil conservation practices by farmers. It was recommended that land should be well defined and property right to land well enforced. Finally, farmers were encouraged to form farm co-operatives fro easy training and access to farm assistance.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           i

Certification    –           –           –           –       –           –           –           –           ii

Dedication      –           –           –           –      –           –           –           –           iii

Acknowledgement      –           –            –           –           –           –           –           iv

Abstract          –           –           –         –           –           –           –           –           v

Table of Contents       –           –                   –           –           –           –           vi

List of Tables  –           –           –         –           –           –           –           –           viii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background Information        –          –           –           –           –           1

1.2       Problem Statement      –           –          –           –           –           –           2

1.3       Objectives of the Study                  –           –           –           –           4

1.4       Research Hypothesis   –          –           –           –           –           –           4

1.5       Justification of the Study       –            –           –           –           –           5

1.6       Limitations of the study-        –          –           –           –           –           6

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1       Concept of Soil Conservation –                –           –           –           –           7

2.2       Soil Conservation Methods    –       –           –           –           –           9

2.3       Factors Influencing the Economics of Soil Conservation  –           15

2.4       Significance of Soil Conservation      –                  –           –           22

2.5       Different Methods that can be Adopted for Economic Analysis of Soil conservation –           –           –           –           –           –           –           24

2.6       Empirical Studies on Soil Conservation         –        –           –           29

2.7       conceptual Issues        –         –           –           –           –           –           33

2.8       Analytical Procedure  –         –           –           –           –           –           36

CHAPTER THREE: METHOLOGY

3.1       Study Area      –           –           –   –           –           –           –           –           39

3.2       Sampling Procedure    –           –     –           –           –           –           –           39

3.3       Sources and Methods of Data Collection-      –           –           –           40

3.4       Data Analysis  –           –        –           –           –           –           –           40

3.5       Model Specification    –           –      –           –           –           –           41

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULT AND DISCUSSION

4.1       Socio-economic Characteristics of the Respondents  –    –           43

4.2       Method/ Technologies Used in Combating Soil/ Land Degradation in the Study Area           –           —          –           –           –           –           49

4.3       Adoption of Selected Soil Conservation Practices by the Respondents        –           53

4.4       Effects of Scio-economic Characteristics of Farmers on Their Intensity of Adoption of Soil conservation Practices-    –           57

4.5       Benefits and Costs of Soil Conservation Practices    —           –           60

4.6       Constraints to Adoption of Soil Conservation Practices-    –           62

 CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION

5.1       Summary         –       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           63

5.2       Recommendation        –       –           –           –           –           –           –           65

5.3       Conclusion      –           –     –           –           –           –           –           –           66

            REFERENCES          –               –           –           –           –           –           67

LIST OF TABLES

Table Title  

                Page

Table 1      Distribution of Respondents According to Sex      –           43

Table 2      Distribution of Respondents According to Age                –           44

Table 3      Level of Education Attainment by Respondents       –           44

Table 4      Distribution of Respondents According to their Marital Status       45

Table 5      Distribution of Respondents According to Family Size             45

Table 6      Distribution of Respondents According to System of Land Acquisition                  46

Table 7      Distribution of Respondents According to Years of Farming 46

Table 8      Distribution of Respondents According to Total Farm Size     47

Table 9      Distribution of Respondents According to Crop Grown          47

Table 10    Distribution of Respondents According to Access to Farm Credit  48

Table 11    Distribution of Respondents According to Income on Sale of Produce of last Cropping Reason                –           –           48

Table 12    Distribution of Respondents According to Forms of Land Degradation in the Study Area   –           –           –           49

Table 13    Distribution of Respondents According to Number that Uses Soil conservation Method            –           –           49

Table 14    Distribution of Respondents According to Types of Soil Conservation Practice(s)-        –           –           –           –           –           50

Table 15    Distribution of Respondents According to Number of Using Soil Conservation Method(s)   –           –           –           –           –           –           52

Table 16    Distribution of Respondents According to Source of Method of Soil Conservation Practices used   –        –           –           –           –           53

Table 17    Distribution of the Respondents According to Number that Belong to Farm Organizations              –           –           –           54

Table 18    Distribution of Farmers According to Number of Extension Visits   –           –           55

Table 19    Guiding Factors to the Adoption Soil Conservation Practices   55

Table 20    Distribution of Respondents Based on Intensity of Use of Selected Soil conservation Practices     –   –           –           –           56

Table 21    Multiple Regression Result             –           –           –           –           57

Table 22    Paired Sample Test     –                   –           –           –           –           60

Table 23    Benefit-Cost Analysis for Soil Conservation Practices in the Study Area                 61

Table 24    Distribution of Respondents According to Constraints to Adoption of Soil Conservation Practices         –           –           –           62

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       BACKGROUND INFORMATION

            Soil may be defined as a natural body of loose and unconsolidated materials found on the earth’s surface; it is derived from weathered parent rock materials and decaying organic matters and it is composed of solid particles with liquid and or gases occupying the spaces between the particles (Ohaeri, 2000).  It is on this solid that most agricultural as well as non agricultural activities take place.  The food we eat, the raw materials needed by the industries are derived from there, directly or indirectly.  An enduring food security will depend on a sustainable and productive resource base (Amaechina, 2000).

            Soil conservation is an investment to enhance the future productive capacity of the soil, it implies reducing risks of soil erosion to a tolerable limit (Lapar and Pandey, 1999).  It is also a set of management strategies for prevention of the soil being eroded from the earth’s surface or becoming chemically altered by over use, salinization, acidification, or other chemical soil contamination (Pagiola, 1993).  It also entails not only control over erosion but all those other measures like correction of soil defects, application of manures and fertilizers, proper rotations, irrigation, drainage, which aim at maintaining the productivity of the soil at a high level (Government of India, 2006).  Soil conservation is also viewed as the use of those practices which will maximize the present value of the long-run returns from land use (Kaine, 1991).

            The need for soil conservation arises due to signs of deteriorating agricultural environments which include erosion, flood disaster, desert encroachment and drought, deforestation, loss of land to other uses; if not checked, the soil becomes degraded.  Soil degradation can be defined as a reduction in the land’s actual or potential uses.  If this occurs, productivity is affected, leading to rise in the level of inputs and hence, costs needed to restore soil productivity (Ohaeri, 2000).  Douglas (1992) stressed that degradation can be slowed or arrested by large range of methods including cultural practices like minimum tillage and contour ploughing, vegetative covers and mechanical measures such as terraces and channels.  The principal approaches that soil conservation strategies may take include; vegetative cover, erosion prevention, salinity management, soil pH control, encouraging health of beneficial soil organisms, prevention and remediation of soil contamination and mineralization (Pagiola, 1993).

 

ECONOMICS OF SOIL CONSERVATION PRACTICES AMONG SMALL SCALE FARMERS IN ENUGU STATE

Additional Information

  • The Project Material is available for download.
  • The Research material is delivered within 15-30 Minutes.
  • The Material is complete from Preliminary Pages to References.
  • Well Researched and Approved for supervision.
  • Click the download button below to get the complete project material.

Frequently Asked Questions

In-order to give you the best service available online, we have compiled frequently asked questions (FAQ) from our clients so as to answer them and make your visit much more interesting.

We are proudly Nigerians, and we are well aware of fraudulent activities that has been ongoing in the internet. To make it well known to our customers, we are geniune and duely registered with the Corporate Affairs Commission of the republic of Nigeria. Remember, Fraudulent sites can NEVER post bank accounts or contact address which contains personal information. Free chapter One is always given on the site to prove to you that we have the material. If you are unable to view the free chapter 1 send an email to info@allprojectmaterials.com with the subject head "FREE CHAPTER 1' plus the topic. You will get a free chapter 1 within an hour. You can also check out what our happy clients have to say.


Students are always advised to use our materials as guide. However, if you have a different case study, you may need to consult one of our professional writers to help you with that. Depending on similarity of the organization/industry you may modify if you wish.


We have professional writers in various disciplines. If you have a fresh topic, just click Hire a Writer or click here to fill the form and one of our writers will contact you shortly.


Yes it is a complete research project. We ensure that our client receives complete project materials which includes chapters 1-5, full references, questionnaires/secondary data, etc.


Depending on how fast your request is acknowledged by us, you will get the complete project material withing 15-30 minutes. However, on a very good day you can still get it within 5 minutes!

What Clients Say

Our Researchers are happy, see what they are saying. Share your own experience with the world.
Be polite and honest, as we seek to expand our business and reach more people. Thank you.

A Research proposal for economics of soil conservation practices among small scale farmers in enugu state:
A Review on economics of soil conservation practices among small scale farmers in enugu state, economics, soil, conservation project topics, researchcub.info, project topic, list of project topics, research project topics, journals, books, Academic writer.
The study investigated the economics of soil conservation practices among small-scale farmers in Enugu State. The study used multi-stage random probability sampling method and the primary data were collected form 120 farmers using structured questionnaire. Data on the socio-economic status of the farmers, forms of land/soil degradation in the study area, methods/ technologies used in combating them, intensity of adoption of selected soil conservation practices, costs and benefits of selected methods of conserving the soil and constraints to adoption of soil conservation practices were obtained. Data obtained were analyzed using percentages, cost-benefit analysis and multiple regression analysis. Based on the 2007/2008 cropping season, it was noted that male (70%) were more involved in soil conservation practices than female (30%). Most of the farmers (61%) had no formal education. Land acquisition was mostly through inheritance (77%). Fifty three percent of the farmers have been in active farming for about 21 – 30 years. Membership of farm organization by farmers was still low (16%). It is noted that 60% of the farmers had never been visited by the extension agents. The major form of soil/land degradation identified in the study area is reduced soil fertility (41%) Majority (43%) of the farmers said that the methods of soil conservation used are indigenous to them. The prevalent soil/land management forms in the study area are inorganic fertilizer, livestock manuring, inter.. agronomy project topics

ECONOMICS OF SOIL CONSERVATION PRACTICES AMONG SMALL SCALE FARMERS IN ENUGU STATE

Project Information

  • CATEGORY : AGRONOMY
  • TYPE : PROJECT MATERIAL
  • FORMAT : MICROSOFT WORD
  • ATTRIBUTE : Documentation Only
  • PAGES : 65 Pages
  • CHAPTERS : 1 - 5
  • PRICE : ₦ 3,000.00

Share Links

Download Post
Download Post

Search for Project Topics

Project topics in Departments

Do you need a writer for your academic work?