APPRAISAL OF POULTRY FEEDS’ MARKETING IN ANAMBRA STATE, NIGERIA


APPRAISAL OF POULTRY FEEDS’ MARKETING IN ANAMBRA STATE, NIGERIA

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Title page        —          –           —          –           –           —          —          —          —          i

 

Certification    —          –           –           —          –           —          —          —          —          ii

 

Dedication      —          –           —          –           –           —          —          —          –           iii

 

Acknowledgment       —          –           —          –           —          –           —          —          iv

 

Table of Contents       —          –           —          –           —          —          –           —          v

 

List of figures           –           –           —          —          —          –            viii

 

List of Tables              —          –           –           —          –           —          –           —        ix

 

Abstract          —          –           –           —          —          –           —          –           —          x

 

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION                                                                  

 

Background to the Study       –           –           –           –           –           –           1

Statement of the Problem       –     –           –           –           –           5

Objectives of the Study          –           –           –           –           8

Hypotheses  of the Study           –           –           –           –           9

Justification for the Study      –           –           –           –           9

CHAPTER TWO:  REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE                                   

 

      Concept of Market      –           –                       –           –           –           –         

Concept of Marketing –          –           –           –           –           11

Agricultural Marketing           –           –           –           –           1210

      Socio-Economic Characteristics of Livestock Business Entrepreneurs in Nigeria     — –           –           –           12      

      Marketing Channel                 –           –           –           14

      Promotion in Marketing and Promotional Tools –  15

      Market Structure                    –           –           –           19

 Market Conduct              –           –           –           –           20

 Market Performance and Efficiency  –        –           20

       Marketing margins        –           –           –           –           20

       Marketing costs            –           –           –           –           –           22

     Theoretical framework           –           –           –           –           24

    Theory of Information Diffusion            –           24

 Theory of Supply             —          –           –           –           25

     Analytical Framework                       –           –           –           28

2.9.1     Gini Coefficient Model         –           –                       –           –           –           28

 

2.9.2     Marketing margin Analysis           –           –           –           30

 

2.9.3    Multiple Regression Analysis             – –           –           –           –           30

 

2.9.4    Test of Significance    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           32

 

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY                        

 

The Study Area           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           33

Sampling Technique    –      –           –           –           –           34

Method of Data Collection         –           –           –           34

Data Analysis  –           –           –           –           –           –           33

            Model Specification    —         –           –           –           35

 

3.4.1   .Marketing Margin Analysis    –              –           –           35

 

3.4.2    Gini Coefficient          –           –           –           –                       –           –           35

 

3.4.3    Multiple Regression Analysis         –           –           –           36

 

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

 

4.1       Socio-economic characteristics of the poultry feed marketers.   39

 

4.2       Marketing Channels of Poultry Feeds in the Study Area         41

 

4.3       Promotional activities adopted by the marketers of poultry feeds 44

 

4.4       Market Concentration among Wholesalers and Retailers of Poultry Feeds —                    –           47

 

4.5       Marketing Margins for Poultry feeds at wholesale and retail levels 52

 

Factors that determine the selling price of poultry feeds at both wholesale and retail levels.      52

Factors that affected the Wholesale selling Price             —         53

Factors that determine the retail selling price of poultry feeds  55

CHAPTER FIVE:  SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

 

Summary       —         –           –           –           —        –           –           —         57

Conclusion                  –           –           –           —         58

Recommendation          —         –           –           —         58

REFERENCES        —          —          –           —          –           –           –           —          60

 

APPENDICES

 

LIST OF TABLES

 

Table 1: Distribution of the Local Government Areas According to Agricultural zones — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -33

 

Table 2: Socioeconomic Characteristics of Poultry Feeds Wholesalers and Retailers   —– —          40      

 

Table 3: Promotional activities adopted by the marketers of poultry feeds 45

 

Table 4: Distribution of Sales Income of Poultry feeds Wholesalers and the estimated Gini coefficient value        —          –           –           —          49

 

Table 5: Distribution of Sales Income of Poultry feeds Retailers and estimated Gini coefficient value            –           50

 

Table 6: Factors that affected wholesale selling price of poultry feeds   54

 

Table 7: Factors that affected the retail selling prices of poultry feeds. – 55

 

LIST OF FIGURES

 

Figure 1: Poultry Feed supply Chain  —          –           –           –           —          4

 

Figure 2: Levels of marketing channel              —        15      

 

Figure 3: Poultry feeds marketing channels in Anambra State, Nigeria   42

 

Figure 4: Lorenz curve of the distribution of sales income of poultry feeds among wholesalers  —  – – – —  – – —     – – – –           51      

 

Figure 5: Lorenz curve of the distribution of sales income of poultry feeds among retailers —          –           —          –           —          –           51

 

ABSTRACT

This study examined the marketing of poultry feeds in Anambra State, Nigeria. The specific objectives were to: describe the socio-economic characteristics of the poultry feeds marketers; identify and describe the marketing channels for poultry feeds; describe the promotional activities adopted by these poultry feed marketers; assess the degree of market concentration among wholesalers and retailers of poultry feeds; determine the marketing  margins for poultry feeds at wholesale and retail levels and ascertain the factors that determine the selling price by the marketers of poultry feeds. The study was guided by the null hypothesis: There is no difference in the marketing margins of wholesalers and retailers of poultry feeds. A survey design was adopted in the study. Data for the study were collected from a sample of 120 marketers through the use of two sets of structured and pre-tested questionnaire. The data were presented using descriptive statistics while Gini coefficient, marketing margins and multiple regression were used for the analysis. The study showed that  males (63.3%) dominated wholesaling, while females (55%) dominated   retail marketing business of poultry feeds. About 70-75% of them were within the highly productive age range of 20-50 years. About 11.7% of the retail marketers attended primary school while 43.3% and 45% attended secondary and higher institutions, respectively. Majority (86.7%) of the wholesalers bought directly from producers (feed millers) while 13.3%  bought from other wholesalers. Most (95%) of the retailers made their purchases through the wholesalers. Marketers purchased poultry feed products packaged in bags of 25kg weight and distributed same using the same packaging from the producers. Some retailers also sold in producers’ packaging and /or smaller measurement. Majority (88.3%) of the wholesalers obtained information on source of supply through personal contact from others in the same trade or suppliers’ agents. There was poor marketing information as new product introduction strategy was also done by personal contact and price reduction. Popular means of advertisement like radio, television and newspapers were not very common. Only about 5% of the marketers were influenced through the mass media. There were high inequalities in sales distribution as well as income among the marketers as Gini coefficient values of 0.46 and 0.57 were obtained for wholesalers and retailers, respectively. The mean marketing margin of N138/25kg bag or 6% for wholesalers was higher than the mean value of N105/25kg bag or 4% for retailers. There existed a significant (p<0.05) positive correlation among the selling price, buying price and salary of sales clerk  for wholesale price. Loading/offloading cost and promotional costs exhibited significant (p<0.05) negative correlation with the wholesale selling price. Analysis of the factors that affected the retail selling price showed that there existed a significant (p<0.05) positive correlation among selling price and transportation costs. Salary of sales clerk exhibited a significant (p<0.05) negative correlation with the retail selling price.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

BACKGROUND INFORMATION

The role of agriculture in the country’s economy cannot be over- emphasized. Prior to the oil boom period in the mid-1970’s, it had been the largest foreign exchange earner for the country. It has evolved from just a means of livelihood to a business for not only are modern techniques of production employed, but also the most sophisticated management and marketing techniques. Agriculture therefore is a wide discipline and poultry keeping is just one industry in the agricultural set-up (Okafor, 1984).

The main domesticated avians contributing in one way or the other to the economy of Nigeria are the domestic fowl, guinea fowls, turkeys, ducks, geese, pheasants and pigeons. The usefulness of these species are many and there are little or no religious, cultural and social barriers or prejudices to their rearing or use of their parts and products in Nigeria (Izunobi, 2002).

 

The level of animal protein intake in Nigeria represents only about 10% of the intake in countries like Denmark, U.S.A., New Zealand and the United Kingdom (Akin, 1976). According to Izunobi (2002), of the protein intake in Nigeria, poultry meat supplies only about 20% of the total meat needs of Nigerians. This is grossly inadequate.

Chicken contains quality proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, multitude of vitamins, minerals and pigments. They also possess natural aroma and flavor compounds. Eggs are excellent food, possessing quality proteins of high biological values (Izunobi, 2002). Egg, a product of the industry, gives about 3.5g of the total 7.2g animal protein required for individual dietary need per day (Adene and Oguntade,, 2006).

The poultry industry provides employment opportunity for the teeming population. The industry, if desired attention is paid to it by government at all levels, can successfully absorb a large number of unemployed youths across the country, currently roaming about in search of unavailable jobs, through its chain of agro-allied industry; commercial feed and toll milling, poultry products processing, poultry-marketing, veterinary pharmaceutical, hatchery operation and breeder farming (Eko, 2009). In addition, the industry, if properly harnessed, can also serve as source of foreign earnings, complementing the crude oil – the main source of foreign earnings presently which is responsible for over 90 percent of our exports. (Adene and Oguntade, 2006).

According to Ali (2011), since 1986, Nigeria’s import ban on corn has  contributed to steady decline in poultry production. He also observed that Nigerian poultry market had seen prosperous times. For two decades after the country achieved independence in 1960, poultry production grew, peaking in 1982 with 40 million commercially reared birds. Since then, he also stated, the population of birds dipped steadily reaching an estimated low rate of 6  million in 1997. Furthermore, Ali added that since production figures for poultry were not maintained by the government, the only way to estimate the number was by the amount of feed sold. In 1997, an estimated 225,000 metric tonnes of commercial poultry feed was sold in the Nigerian market down from 250,000 tonnes in 1995. The feed milling industry in Nigeria is only producing at about 15 percent of capacity (Ali, 2011). This faltering market can be traced back to the early 1980’s, when the Nigerian economy collapsed. An unstable government import bans and intervention efforts by the World Bank caused price realignments that weakened purchasing power and pushed up the cost of poultry inputs and products.

Poultry feeds are animal feed used to feed poultry birds. They are formulated from a mixture of ingredients, including cereal grains, cereal by-products, fats, plant protein sources, animal protein sources and by-products, vitamin and mineral supplements, crystalline amino acids and feed additives compounded in such a way as to provide essential nutrients for sustaining optimum growth and production. Poultry feed is a poultry input and its demand is derived from the demand for the poultry and/or its products. Poultry feeds are categorized in such a way as to provide specified nutrient, composition for different productive purposes (Standards Organization of Nigeria [SON], 1977).

 

The poultry feed is the nucleus of poultry industry and its development is directly related to that of the poultry industry. Poultry feed represents the major cost of poultry production, constituting about 70 percent of the total cost. Of total feed cost, about 95 percent is used to meet energy and protein requirements, about 3 to 4 percent for major mineral, trace mineral and vitamin requirements and 1 to 2 percent for various feed additives (Ravindran and Blair, 1992).

Compounded poultry feed can be in form of mash or pellets. There are three types of feed millers in the poultry industry, namely; custom, toll and integrated farms. The custom millers mill and market their feeds under registered trade names. The dominant trade names in the Nigerian market include Top Feeds, Livestock Feeds (Pfizer), Rainbow Feeds, Guinea Feeds, Animal Care Feeds and Vital Feeds. Some of these custom millers have adopted franchising as an operational method for achieving a wider reach across the country. The toll millers are spread across major locations with significant concentration in small-to-medium scale poultry farms. They mill feed to the specification of customers (poultry farmers) and charge a fee (toll) per quantity milled. The customers either bring their feed ingredients or purchase them from the millers, if the millers have them in stock. The third category of feed millers is the integrated poultry farmers, they own feed mills and produce feed for own use (Adene and Oguntade, 2006).

APPRAISAL OF POULTRY FEEDS’ MARKETING IN ANAMBRA STATE, NIGERIA

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  • TYPE : PROJECT MATERIAL
  • FORMAT : MICROSOFT WORD
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  • PAGES : 60 Pages
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This study examined the marketing of poultry feeds in Anambra State, Nigeria. The specific objectives were to: describe the socio-economic characteristics of the poultry feeds marketers; identify and describe the marketing channels for poultry feeds; describe the promotional activities adopted by these poultry feed marketers; assess the degree of market concentration among wholesalers and retailers of poultry feeds; determine the marketing margins for poultry feeds at wholesale and retail levels and ascertain the factors that determine the selling price by the marketers of poultry feeds. The study was guided by the null hypothesis: There is no difference in the marketing margins of wholesalers and retailers of poultry feeds. A survey design was adopted in the study. Data for the study were collected from a sample of 120 marketers through the use of two sets of structured and pre-tested questionnaire. The data were presented using descriptive statistics while Gini coefficient, marketing margins and multiple regression were used for the analysis. The study showed that males (63.3%) dominated wholesaling, while females (55%) dominated retail marketing business of poultry feeds. About 70-75% of them were within the highly productive age range of 20-50 years. About 11.7% of the retail marketers attended primary school while 43.3% and 45% attended secondary and higher institutions, respectively. Majority (86.7%) of the wholesalers bought directly from producers (feed millers) w.. agronomy project topics

APPRAISAL OF POULTRY FEEDS’ MARKETING IN ANAMBRA STATE, NIGERIA