This project is focused on the evaluation of the impact of
untreated sewage effluent on farm lands. Useofsewage
of Sancaros farm in Awgu local government area of Enugu
essential nutrients forproductivitylevels(grassgrowth) and soil fertility.
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Land application of wastewater is centuries old practice. This
practice was introduced in US more thaii one hunched years ago but general
interest on the subject waned after the turn of the century in favour of more
mechanized method of waste treatment and disposal (Jewel and Seabrook. 2011).
It allows disposal of the sewage effluents and fulfills the increasing demand
of water for agricultural purposes. The cost of constructing. operating and
maintaining a land treatment facility is generally considered to be lower than
corresponding conventional waste water treatment system (Badger and Thomason.
2013). In the UK. treatment and disposal of sewage sludge from biological water
plants accounts for approximately 50% of the total cost of sewage treatment,
and the major US sludge disposal route is land application (Lake 2013). Due to
the fact that toxic substances are concentrated in the solid phase during
wastewater and sludge disposal. the sludge management can be more risky than
irrigation with wastewater particularly in developing countries with economic
and administrative constraints. Moreso. Mexico large quantities of sludge from
a wastewater treatment plant containing pathogens and toxic substances as ionic
aluminum have been deposited in open areas, causing damage on soils and
problems to the inhabitants (Qrtiz-Hemandez et a!., 2011).
The reuse of domestic wastewater to irrigate agricultural land
seems to be a practical option for under developed world including India. One
of the most important problem in the Municipal Corporation areas of cities like
Ludhiana. The reuse of domestic wastewater to irrigate agricultural land seems
to be a practical option for under developed world including India. One of the
most important problem in the Municipal Corporation areas of cities like
Ludhiana. Jalancihar. Amritsar in Punjab. India are that industries are not
confined to industrial parks rather most of the small to medium industries are
running in the residential area. The owners of these small to medium industries
are unable to install their treatment plants and they are disposing their
effluents in the domestic sewage system of the city. which is carried forward
to rural areas through open sewage drains and farmers with fields adjoining to
these drains irrigate purely or mixing it with underground irrigation water. In
addition to domestic effluents. a number of industries to produce large volume
of effluents requiring their proper disposal. May times. industries produce
highly toxic effluents which can neither be thrown into water bodies nor used
for agricultural purposes as the toxic elements are likely to enter food chain
through plants. annuals and fish. However, effluents of some industries have
useful characteristics and. therefore. have the potential to improve the
productivity of soils. The land management of such wastes thus. not only brings
the economic benefits but also protect the fragile ecosystem from degradation.
The application of sewage effluent on farm lands as an
alternative to fertilizer is increasingly receiving attention in the recent
time due to high cost of fertilizer in some developing countries. Though sewage
contains both organic and inorganic matter, but it has been discovered that
farmers encounter many challenges each time they apply untreated sewage
effluent on farm lands. Some of these problems include the presence of heavy
metals in sewage. These heavy metals are harmful to farm land when they
accumulate. They may also be harmful to human system when consumed through the
plant. (Young-Jin, 2011)
Untreated sewage effluence is referred as those domestic and
industrial waste effluents which are discharged into septic tank or
sterilization pond and have not undergone treatment process. This untreated
sewage effluent contains heavy metals such as sulphur, zinc, copper and other
toxic metals. (Kharche, et al, 2011)
Effluent from Municipal sewage treatment plants often contain
high level of plant nutrient, particularly nitrogen and potassium, which are
essential to crop growth. Agricultural application of untreated sewage effluent
provides both water and nutrient for crop production (Chambers, et al, 2002).
However, depending on the content of the potentially harmful component, which
can accumulate in the soil of the farm land biologically prove hazardous
(Rattan et al, 2005). Therefore when untreated effluent of the sewage is used
on land for an agricultural purposes, the problem associated with its use
should be considered (Emongor and Ramolemana, 2004). The continous use of
untreated sewage effluent on farm lands by farmer may result in the
accumulation of heavy metal on the soil and thereby affect the soil fertility.
Therefore, the need for farmer to know the effect of untreated
sewage on farm land is a necessity especially, in a developing country like
Nigeria were farmers have limited access to chemical fertilizer.
Therefore, this study shall evaluate the impact of untreated
sewage effluence on farm lands using Sancaros Farm, Ihe town in Awgu Local
Government Area of Enugu State as a point of reference.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The project aimed at evaluating the impact of untreated sewage
effluent on farm land using Sancaros Farm, Ihe town in Awgu Local Government
Area of Enugu State as a case study.
The specific objectives are:
(1) To characterize soil from farmland with sewage effluent
(2) To compare the soil properties of farmland with effluent
deposit with that without effluent deposit
(3) To highlight the negative effects of farmland with effluent
to crops and possible recommendations for improvement
JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY
The significant of the project cannot be over emphasized. The
need to understand the characteristic and composition of farm land with
untreated sewage effluent is a necessity.
Also these will serve as a research material for agricultural
industries and student on the knowledge and understanding on the use of
untreated sewage effluent for agriculture. The result of this study may enhance
farmer decision to apply untreated sewage effluent instead of relying on
prohibitive supply of chemical fertilizer.
SCOPE OF THE PROJECT:
The scope of this project will involve the following:-
i. To locate a source of untreated sewage effluent
ii. Measuring the key chemical characteristic of the untreated
sewage before the application
iii. Measuring the key parameter of soil after application of
Key parameter – PH, Copper, Phosphorus, potassium, nitrate ND
chloride and note charges.
LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
During the research the researchers encountered some constraints
which serve as limitation to the study. These limitations include time factor,
funding of the project and difficulty in getting research materials.
1. Time Factor: The time for the research is not enough since
the researchers are engage with other task to be done such as receiving lectures,
quiz, assignment and exams. Also, during the period of the research the
researchers will also take care of some domestic work.
2. Funding of the Project: The financial aspect of the project
was another challenge. The cost of getting materials so as to complete the
project is expensive.
3. Difficulty in Getting Research Material: Materials for the
research work are not easily come by. However, the researcher had to do all
they can to make the research work valid.
The research methodology is divided into chapters. This include
chapter one which is the introduction and it contains the background of the
study, statement of the problem, objectives of the study, scope and limitation,
methodology and significance of the study.
Chapter two is the literature review which contains an indepth
research of past works in the subject matter.
Chapter three is methodology which include materials and
Chapter four contains the research result and discussion.
Finally, chapter five contains conclusion and recommendations.