This research work examined the various uses of the high sea and
sea beds, the various activities that are carried out in these maritime
environments, the bodies and agencies that are responsible for implementing the
related maritime laws and policies as it affect the global trades, and hence,
produce a formal judgment on how these uses have benefited the maritime
administration. This work further surveyed the High Sea and how maritime
administration has influenced its activities positively and negatively, in line
with different types of vessels for high sea transportation, Trades and related
maritime investment, laws and treaties formulated for protection of maritime
environments. It finally analyzes the local content with the international
benchmark by carrying out survey using the Nigerian High Sea
concession area (Atlantic Ocean) and maritime zones under international laws
that are relevant to the research population. The
researcher conducted a GPS analysis on multinational oil
wells for CHEVERON, SHELL, ENI (AGIP), and MOBIL at their different oil tank
farms. A field research was made on the satellite well and platform for oil
export. Manifolding model was proposed for oil drilling and export. With an
analysis based on the findings, it was empirically found that there exist about
92% profit margin and an added reduction in overall environmental pollution if
this proposal is adopted.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Since 1688, few ships and their Naval Architectural pattern led
the Lloyd’s of London to form classification societies. The first register,
printed in 1764 and for use in year 1764-1766, was published in order to give
both underwriter and merchant an idea of the condition of vessel they either
owned, insured or chartered.
In years that followed, insurance brokers and services of ship
survey came upstream to arrest the situation of poorly maintained and badly
operated vessels and to also contend with the situation of cargo losses.
In this modern age, the quest for economic growth, balance of
trade indices and vast undersea oil discoveries had led maritime nations and
other private practitioner into capital intensive venture such as:
Maritime transport, ship brokering cruse ship supply,
dry-docking offshore minerals exploration, tanker operations oil and gas
productions, seafarers training, trawler fishing activities, freight
forwarding, sea environmental pollution control, import and export management,
maritime safety and security services etc.
In order to ensure convenience, safety, secured economy and
profit maximization of the above ventures, there is great need for activity
definition and jurisdiction agreement within the comity of Maritime states.
It is on this note that several initiatives including those of the
International Maritime Organization (IMO), the North Atlantic Treaty
Organization (NATO), the European Union Naval forces (EUNAVFOR) and the
international oil pollution and compensation fund committee in their combined
effort has brought about several United Nation Convention on the law of the sea
(UNCLOS) and encourage all safety of life at sea (SOLAS) contracting government
to participate in long range identification and tracking (LRIT) of flag state
and non- flag state vessel, for safer and unified maritime administration.
Most importantly, the periodic evolution from the (IMO)
conventions, Hamburg rule on carriage regime, Rotterdam rule on carriage of
wholly or partly by sea, the United States Congress act of 1972 on ocean dumping,
the 1972/1974 Oslo and Paris conventions on international treaty on the
controlling of marine pollution etc, had all served as legal benchmarks,
operations standards and principles that had guided maritime operations.
The uses of different high seas of the world like: the
Mediterranean sea, the Caribbean sea, the South China sea, Gulf of
Mexico, Gulf of Guinea, the Baltic sea, the Persian gulf, and the wider Indian
waters; together with their geometric defined seabed has existed since the beginning
of ages. On the other hand the significant administrative laws, the legislative
bills and policies, the convention acts and treaties; for the safe voyage in
these maritime communities has not ceased to evolve.
The high sea is a body of saline water (generally a division of
world ocean) partly or fully enclosed by land. The seabed which naturally
defines the underwater geometry of the planet’s hydrosphere is the land found
at the bottom of this sea from the earliest starting point of history, sea
and seabed have different naturally and territorial characteristics that
determine their uses, this includes:
Sea surface area and dept.
channel draft and shape.
Subsea geological formation and mineral formations.
textures and porosity
Sea location and freezing components
Sea boarders’ vulnerability to terror and privacy
7. Law of
the sea and concessional agreements
navigational polices and treaties
Sea hydrospheric communication and information tolerance Sea military base and
seabed’s changes to climate and weather patterns.
International Maritime Organizations and Agencies are the apex
bodies responsible for the implementation of Marine laws and policies as it
relates to global trade and sub-economy of member and non-member nations. Since
pre -historic times the sea have been very useful to men as source of
water, as means for fertilizing the land, as sources of food from 230,000 know
In the recent decades, while the seas are used for:
channel for boats, yards, tramp and liner vessel transportation mode,
board construction of oil exploration terminals,
positioning of submersible and semi-submersible oil rigs for mineral
vessel fishing and marine life farming activities.
of onboard regional maritime rescue coordination and relaying of signal
of concessionary agreement for the collection of offshore and port stevedoring
fleet maintenance and vessel refueling harbors,
surveillance, security and ship collision survey.
The Seabed on the other hand is used for:
laying of pipelines and communication equipments
analysis and comprehension of wave behaviour using multiple component
technology, so as to characterize wave images for oil reservoir strength,
density and cracking effects.
see seismic analysis as regards petroleum evaluations parameters and economic
base band analysis of supersonic arrays in submarine vessel surveillance for attack
and defence mission, under the sea.
indices as regards the high sea perturbations, thrust fault and destructive
plate boundary analysis for tsunamis and landslides.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
The use of high sea and seabed in Maritime Administration in
Nigeria context is experiencing series of problem due to the
presence of Niger delta militants and governments age long neglect of these oil
rich zones. At different ocean and high sea, arises different temperatures and
climate condition abounds. And these have multiplier effects of
ocean acidification which has direct negative impact on high sea vessels and
other seabed. The offshore structures even in these unavoidable problems are
consistently deployed with inadequate shipping management skills and complete
lack of administrative competence due to knowledge gap and political
stagnation. Continued bottlenecks exists in Maritime Administration as a result
of global policies as a well as institutional changes in legislative laws as
regards the use of the high sea, Impact of liberalization by the United Nation
Commission On Trade and Development (UNCTAD) has some strategies that remained
unclear at different stages of its implementation. This has impacted negatively
to maritime administration on national regimes. The persistence of this problem
was the issue that led to the 40: 40: 20 ratios. It was indeed this concept
that crushed the NNSL (Nigeria National Shipping Line). Many maritime
infrastructural facilities which serve as derived demand with the high sea and
sea bed for water transportation; is hit by decadence, dilapidation and poor
maintenance culture. The problems of embezzlements and financial crime are
always at the forefront when holistic correction of this defect is initiated.
These appalling situations in itself have negatively affected maritime
administration. The peculiarity and distinct nature of high sea mode of
transport, saddled with modern technological innovations in the building of
some factor services, has proven that the Nigerian government has not done what
is needed to support this sector when contrasted with their partners in the
far-east, western world, and other sub-continents, this problem has sabotaged
the maritime administrative agency from attaining to the needed bench mark as
kept by the international maritime organization (IMO).
1.3 Research Questions
following research questions will be addressed in the study.
categories of high sea and sea beds and the activities undertaken there in,
have influenced maritime administration positively and negatively?
2. To what
extent has the use of high sea and seabed been evaluated with a view to
determining their contribution to maritime administration?
1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The area of this work is within the Nigerian high sea-Atlantic
ocean as it affects the Maritime administration in Nigeria.
1.5 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main aim of this work is to appraise the uses of the high
sea and sea bed in maritime administration in Nigeria. The study further aimed
at: Characterizing the high sea by way of proper definition of maritime zones,
flag of confidence and possible inclusion offences. Further specific
conduct a comprehensive study of the selected high sea and seabed
and find out their locations, evaluate their factor, service ,distinct features
and prefer better method to the economic benefit that they offer.
determine and find out various activities that are carried out at the selected
high sea and seabed, examine the stake holders’ involved, their limitation and
maritime administration characteristics.
This chapter reviews related literature to the study on
appraising the uses of the high seas and seabed in maritime administration
focusing specifically on the Nigerian high sea-atlantic ocean and its seabed.
2.1 THE MEANING OF OIL AND
The ideal of oil and gas manifold is to divert oil and gas flow
without interruption, from the separator to crude oil burner for disposal; to
surge tank or guage tank for measurement or storage, or to a production line.
Oil and gas manifold also isolates the test equipment to prevent
interruption if the testing equipment is pulled out of service temporarily. The
oil manifold is comprised of ball valves, arranges as a manifold and is skid
mounted namely: The gas two ball valves is mounted on a skid. The valves have
the following qualities:
1. Metal –
to – metal
sealing design top resist harsh environment operations
Oil and gas are designed to converge multiple junctions into a
single channel into multiple junctions, simple manifold system basically are
used to divide one supply input to multiple outputs, while complex systems
incorporate integral values or an electronic network interface. The specific
feature of manifold is determined by its use.
In oil and gas sector, manifold systems are used within the
exploration, development and production phase, particularly in wells using
surface testing equipment. Choke manifolds combine high pressure value with
multiple choke and are used to lower pressure at the well head, which is very
important to gas flaring. Multiple chokes are needed so that if one fails the
flow, can be directed to another one. Choks can be adjustable or fixed,
howe3ver, must system have a combination of both.
In choosing manifold system there are a number of considerations
to take into account, they are as follows:
Pressure is exerted through the system. It is important that the weakest part
of manifold system can handle pressures grater than the force exerted also,
regular maintenance is required to ensure the wear and cyclic fatigue has not
handle its designed maximum pressure
The size of the pipes, values and other components of the manifold system
determine the maximum flow rate. Careful consideration should be applies when
predicting future flow requirement for your application liquids such as crude
oil, flow rate is measured in gallons per minute, while gasses are calculated
in standard cubic feet per minute.
Temperature range of manifold equipment should be based on careful assessment
of both current and future uses and applications. Manifolds can be made from a
number of materials. Choosing the right material will determine the operation
the manifold will be used in. for example the light weight corrosion resistant
nature of aluminum is suitable for highly corrosive fluids and excessive wear
steel and offers high physical strength and can be coated for great corrosive
resistance stainless steel is recommended for externally connosive
applications. Ductile iron is use when both corrosive resistance and
machinability are important. Thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers of
different molecular weight and grade can be used to provide protection against
specific types corrosion and chemical attack.
The number and types of ports determines the manifold’s
application. The number of inputs required determines the number of supply
ports, while the number of outputs determines the number of outlet
The subsea manifolds offers long term reliability as safety,
with a modular approach. Our subsea approach is based on pre- engineered
modular building blocks with a wide variety of configuration requirements and
design options the system is designed with close attention to flow assurance
requirements, with a range of foundation systems or various soil conditions.
The installation of manifold system is determined by the following features
deployment and mid water tow
the need for heavy lift vessels.
Presently in Nigeria, there is no tangible contribution made by
NIMASA (Nigeria maritime Administration and safety agency) on oil and gas
manifold. The agency is yet to act on this improved system.