Although nurses prevent and control infections they lack the
necessary knowledge to practice infection prevention and control. There is low
compliance to infection control precautions including hand hygiene, the use of
gloves and sharps management as a result of limited knowledge, poor staff
attitude towards infection control measures leading to prolonged stay of the
patients in the hospital, functional disability or reduced quality of life,
high resistance to antimicrobial agents, emotional stress, additional financial
costs for both the patients and their families and finally unnecessary deaths.
This infections are actually preventable. It was essential to explore the
knowledge, attitude and practices of nurses toward their prevention.
The purpose of the study was to determine the Knowledge, attitude, and practice
of nurses towards prevention and control of nosocomial infection at the federal
medical center Umuahia.
This study was a descriptive, cross-sectional study which employed simple
random sampling method and a semi structured questionnaire was used to collect
data from nurses in Federal Medical Center Umuahia. The sample size of 88
participants was used. Data was analyzed and tables, graphs, pie charts and
percentages were generated.
Study findings: The findings of
the study revealed that 65.9% of the respondents were female while 34.1% were
male. The diploma nurses constituted 48.9%, enrolled 29.5% and 21.6% of the
respondents were graduates with degree award. Greater percentage of the
respondents were diploma holder. Modal age group is 21-29 (48.9%, majority the
respondents had experience of 1-5 years (58%). 51.1% of the respondents were
very knowledgeable about hospital acquired infections, 37.5% of the respondents
were quite knowledgeable about Hospital acquired infections. 81.8% of the
respondents strongly agreed that every patient should be treated as if they
carry blood borne. On the same note, 83.0% of the respondents said they always
observe the infection control practices 90.9% of the respondents stated that
they don’t recap needles after use. 96.6% of the respondents said they place
disposable sharps in safety box immediately after use. Results also indicate
that, 96.6% of the respondents always use gloves when doing procedure while
3.2% of the respondents sometimes use gloves when doing procedure.
This chapter consists of the
study Background, Statement of problem, Objectives of study, Research questions
about the Knowledge, attitude, and practice of nurses towards prevention and
control of nosocomial infection at the federal medical center Umuahia,
Significance of the study and Conceptual framework.
1.0 Background of study
Hospital acquired infections
(HAIs) also called nosocomial infections are infections obtained by the
patient, 48 hours after admission at the hospital or a health facility for reasons
which are not related to the infections or before admission to the facility,
patient was not previously infected (Kelly et.al, 2012).
HAIs occur worldwide and affect hundreds and millions of
people and they are related with high rates of morbidity and mortality among
patients who are admitted in the hospitals or health facility and are a major
problem to patients’ safety and in settings where health care is to be made
safe, their close watch and avoidance should be the top most priority (WHO, 2009).
Health workers (HWs) are as well having an increased chances of getting these
infections (Iliyasu et al, 2016).
Globally, over 1.4 million
people are affected by HCAIs (WHO, 2010). The prevalence of patients affected
by HAIs in developed countries is ranging from 5% to 10% and about 15% to 40%
of the patients are in critical care units (CDC, 2010). The prevalence of
Hospital Acquired Infections in Africa is varying from 2.5% to 14.8% in
Algeria, Senegal, Burkina Faso, and Tanzania (WHO 2011). Bacteria, fungi,
viruses, and parasites are the causative agents of HAIs (David McQuoid-Mason
The end results of HCAIs in
accordance to WHO, 2009 and New York State Department of Health 2014, are the
prolonged stay in the hospital, functional disability or reduced quality of
life, high resistance to antimicrobial agents, emotional stress, additional
financial costs for both the patients and their families and finally