Pig is one of the domestic animals found in Nigeria and most
parts of West Africa. Pigs are reared
for the production of meat called pork and fat called lard. The pig produces litters twice a year. One litter or one birth give between eight
(8) and sixteen (16) piglets. They also
eat anything that is edible when given. Although, the rearing of pig and its
consumption is not popular in Moslems areas in Nigeria because of the
religion. Some people look at pigs as
dirty animal usually found in muddy water, the meat is also believed to be
responsible for the carrying of tapeworm, to human beings. This is probably responsible for some people
prefer meat from other animal to pig meat. The breeds of pigs now reared in
Nigeria include those that are native to Nigeria and the one brought from other
countries such as Britain and United States of America.
Local West Africa Dwarf Pig:
This breed are kept by the local farmers in villages and towns in
southern parts of Nigeria. It is small
in size and usually black or brown in colour. It lives in dirty environment,
and eats anything that comes it way. The
breed is a native to West Africa.
Large White: This is
a popular meat producing pig in Nigeria.
It is white in colour with average size, it is resistant to
trypanosomiasis disease, hence found in Southern Nigeria – the pigs is a native
Land race: This is
larger than other breeds of pig. It has
white hairs and skin. Land race has ears
which are pointing forward. The animal
has very good meat. It originated from
Norway. Duroc: The pig has large
body. The colour is golden yellow or
cherry red. It has droopy ears. The animal come from U.S.A.
Large Black: The
animal is black in colour with droopy ear.
It is a god meat (pork) producer and came from U.S.A.
Chester White: The
pig has white skin, the ears are droopy and heavier than duroc. It can produce many offspring in one birth. It originated from Pennsylvania in U.S.A
Tamworth: the animal
has red colour, large head, small legs and slim body. It is a native of Ireland.
PRODUCTION STRATEGIES (MANAGEMENT)
There are three (3) major production strategies which are as
(1) intensive management practices
management practice and/or free range management practices. Pigs are very prolific animals whose rate of
production is better than most other domestic animals. Pigs have a high conversion rate of 1:5 of
the Gross energy taken. They are able to
convert compounded fats into meat more cheaply and rapidly than most other
domestic animal. Pork carcass yields a
high percentage of dressed meat and a high portion of edible parts.
Pork is a good source of animal protein. It is high in energy, attractive, nutritious,
tasty and tender. This is apparently due
to the fact that slaughter animal are young, so, because of these development
concerning pork meat, many business men and women have since seize the
opportunity to go into the venture as marketing (trading), and consumption of
pork meat, but that not withstanding, the safety aspect must not be neglected,
and those who sale the meat pork and those consuming the product.
Meat inspection is commonly perceive as the sanitary control
of slaughter animal and meat with the purpose of providing safe and wholesome
meat for human consumption and to ensure that only apparently healthy,
physiologically normal one are slaughter for human consumption and abnormal
animals are separated and dealt with accordingly. The responsibility of achieving this
objectives lies primarily with the relevant public/private health authority,
the problem associated with the meat production, centres on the role and
functional effectiveness of the heath ministry, yet the observing thought that
has become all too evident in the year past is that, increase in meat
production alone is not the answer. This
is so, partly because such an increase is sometimes supported without
appropriate pre-slaughter/post slaughter measure and safety status of animal
which should be properly tackled and taking into consideration.
In many countries of the world, meat inspection lack the
necessary information and guideline to access the sanitary status of animal,
meat from slaughter animal (FAO, 1998) and the Food and Agriculture
Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in collaboration with the World Health
Organization (WHO) approved the foundation of the international commission of
codex Alimentarius to establish a joined program on food regulation (FAO,
The Codex Alimentarius, has turned into the reference point
for food businessmen, industrialist, traders and consumers, it is the guide for
the international, national organization in charge of the products’ control for
the elaboration of the internal quality regulation of food, for protecting the
consumers health at local, regional, national and world scale (FAO, 2003). World Health Organization has therefore
endeavour to prepare a concise guideline on the subject together with colour
illustration demonstrating the pathological lesion that many occur in pigs,
bovines, small ruminant, poultry etc, the statement was made on the judgment of
disease carcasses or part of the carcasses are recommendation, which are
influenced by the need of salvaging as much meat as possible for human
consumption and that abnormal animal should be separated appropriately and
dealt with accordingly. To ensure that
animal or meat (from abattoir) are free from disease, wholesome and possess
no-threat to human (WHO, 2003).
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The problem which
the study seeks to address is the issue of consumer safety. The concern is that meat should not
predisposes man to food born diseases.
The research questions are:
a. To estimate the
determinant of food safety.
b. To identify the
food safety practice.
c. To estimate the
cost of food safety.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
general objectives of the study is to examine the safety issues associated with
pork meat marketing in the study area.
The specific objectives are:
1. To identify the
socio-economic characteristics of the pork marketers.
2. To identify safety
practices adopted by pork seller in the
study area to guarantee consumers safety.
3. To estimate the
determinant of pork meat consumer safety in the study area.
JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY
seeks to accomplish and increase awareness and knowledge, on how to provide
wholesome meat for human consumption, and the need to position the general
public, inspection/health ministry and of course, the abattoir operators of
their call to duties instead of the negligence that has become a course for
concern, owing to disease threat and it related condition. And also, because of deformed nature of the
appropriate agencies and ministry, the abattoir operator has cease the
opportunity to slaughter sick animal and disease management history. And on the other, the small retailers in our
various market has not meet up with
their safety security measures. This
study is therefore meant not only to bring to our minds the pre-cautionary
measures, but safety consciousness, the appropriate ministries, and to remind
them of their responsibilities, why the general public should be aware also
that wholesome meat and its consumption is their right to life. The
wholesomeness of meat and their consumption should spur us to imbibe the spirit
of food security for a better and happier living.