Tillage is identified as asset of operation performed on the
soil to prepare seed bed, weed control, and improve soil properties for
enhancing the burying residues, germination, growth and yield of crops as well
as conservation soil moisture (FAO, 1989).
Tillage can act a major new control on soil biogeochemical
cycles by making available previously protected soil organic matter (SOM),
which changes net nitrogen mineralization and gross nitrogen immobilization
(Ladd et al., 1993).
Soil tillage has a major influence on the microbial
activity, which influences soil aeration, moisture, and temperature (Larsen,
1967).Loss of soil organic matter (SOM) has been associated with tillage
intensity. However, soil organic matter (SOM) loss due to tillage can be expected
to be a function of soil type, climate and cropping practice (Lal et al.,
A better understanding of soil organic matter (SOM) is vital
for development of effective soil conservation practices. Recently concern for
global climate change, however emphasizes the importance of conservation
tillage and how it can implement in many soils to help reduce organic matter
(OM) losses and hence increase soil organic matter (SOM). Conservation tillage
has proved to have the potential for converting many soils from source to sinks
of atmospheric nitrogen (Kern and Jonson, 1993). In this context, acritism of
recent developments in the soil concept has been aimed at more clearly defining
the role of soil organic matter (SOM) towards increasing agriculture productivity
and environment quality (Sojka and up Church, 1999).
Tillage has been an important aspect of technological
development in the evolution of agriculture, in particular in food production.
The objectives of tilling the soil include seedbed preparation, water and soil
conservation and weed control. Tillage has various physical, chemical and
biological effects on the soil both beneficial and degrading, depending on the
appropriateness or otherwise of the methods used. The physical effects such as
aggregate-stability, infiltration rate, soil and water conservation, in
particular, have direct influence on soil productivity and sustainability.
Tillage technology began with the use of stick or metal jab
for seeding and with gradual agricultural development the technology passed
through a phase of ploughing – animal-drawn ploughs, subsequently followed by
tractor-drawn implements and recently with more powerful machinery. At the
centre of all this development, is the availability and employment of energy
sources. In developed countries and in some developing countries today, fossil
fuel is the main energy source, whilst in most developing tropical countries
human labour is still predominant. However, animal draught power has been the
tradition in many developing countries, particularly in the semi-arid tropics.
A major constraint on the use of animals is and has been the availability of
Recently, many developing countries have introduced tractors
and various implements in attempts to increase food production. The general
lesson learnt in most such countries is that often the machinery chosen has not
been matched to the various agro-ecological zones and soil types. Furthermore
technicians engaged in the tillage operations have not been properly trained.
This has resulted in widespread soil degradation and loss in soil productivity.
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Today there are major problems facing the modernization of
African agriculture. Food production must necessarily keep pace with population
growth. Many countries will soon have limited new land for agricultural
development leaving no alternative other than intensifying yield per unit area.
Soil management and conservation must play a major role in increasing crop
yields and soil productivity on a sustainable basis.
Tillage and residue management which have direct influence
on soil and water conservation are two important components of soil management
in Africa, especially in the semi-arid tropics. This agro-ecological zone has a
great potential for increased agricultural roductivity but at the same time
poses a major challenge due to the various soil and climatic constraints, and
the ease with which serious soil degradation occurs if farm operations are not
Therefore, the objective of this study was
1.To determine the effect of tillage on soil organic matter
2. To determine the effect of soil tillage on nitrogen
mineralization, potential of rain-fed vertisols.
3.To determine the effect of tillage on soil properties
4.To determine the effect of soil tillage on crop yield
1.What is the effect
of tillage on soil organic matter
2. What is the effect of soil tillage on nitrogen
mineralization, potential of rain-fed vertisols.
3.What is the effect
of tillage on soil properties
4.What is the effect
of soil tillage on crop yield
SCOPE OF STUDY
The study was aim at finding the effect of soil tillage on
soil organic structure with special reference to farmlands in Nigeria. The study will look at other
areas like tillage effect on soil texture and crop productivity and also on