This study examines the non-financial motivation and worker’s performance in Nigerian civil service with particular reference to Imo State Civil Service. The main objectives of the this study are: to find out if there is a significant relationship between workers participation and high performance, examine the relationship between non-financial motivation and employees’ high performance , discover if high performance is basically a function of non-financial incentives and discover the various motivational techniques/strategies. To achieve these objectives, the researcher made use of primary sources (mainly with questionnaire and observation) and secondary sources to collect data and information. This work was analyzed quantitatively with simple percentage and the hypotheses were tested with Chi-square to validate the findings. Based on the data collected and analyzed, the findings show that achievement of high performance is more of a question of non-financial motivation and not necessarily financial incentives, both financial and non financial incentives play a role towards employee’s high performance, there is a relationship between non-financial motivation and employees’ performance; there is a relationship between workers’ participation and their performance. Also it was discovered that there is lack of regular promotion, existence of authoritarian leadership style, irregular trainings, inadequate participatory management/workers’ involvement in decision making, poor communication, etc which have contributed to low morale and performance in Imo State Civil Service. So, based on the findings, the recommendations are: encouragement of employee involvement/participation in decision making, recognition of employees’ efforts, presence of regular promotion, establishment of appropriate job design (job enrichment), regular strategic training plans, existence of democratic leadership style, use of adequate disciplinary measures, etc.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page – – – – – – – – – i
Certification – – – – – – ii
Approval page- – – – – – – – – iii
Dedication- – – – – – – – – – iv
Acknowledgment – – – – – – v
Abstract – – – – – – – – – – viii
Table of contents – – – – – – ix
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the study- – – – – – – – 1
1.2 Statement of problem- – – – – – – 5
1.3 Objective of the study- – – – – – – 6
1.4 Significance of study- – – – – – – 7
1.5 Scope and Limitations of the study – – – – 9
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE AND RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
2.1 Literature Review – – – – – – – 10
2.1.1 Motivation – – – – – – – – 10
2.1.2 Perspectives on Motivation – – – – – – 34
2.1.3 Types of Motivation – – – – – – – 50
2.1.4 Non-Financial Motivation – – – – – – 55
2.1.5 Non-financial Motivational Factors / Devices- – – 56
2.1.6 Performance- – – – – – – – 81
2.1.7 Gap in Literature- – – – – – – 87
2.2 Hypotheses – – – – – – – – 88
2.3 Theoretical Framework – – – – – – 89
2.4 Methodology – – – – – – – – 91
2.4.1 Research Design – – – – – – – 91
2.4.2 Method of Data Collection – – – – – – 92
220.127.116.11 Population of the Study – – – – – – 92
18.104.22.168 Sample Size and Sampling Techniques – – – – 92
22.214.171.124 Sources of Data Collection – – – – – – 92
126.96.36.199 Method of Data Analysis – – – – – – 94
CHAPTER THREE: THE STUDY AREA/GENERAL INFORMATION
3.1.1 Evolution of Nigerian Civil Service- – – – 95
3.2 Historical Background of Imo State Civil Service – – 119
3.2.1 Structure and Organization of Imo State Civil Service – 120
3.3 The Functions of Nigerian Civil Service – – – – 124
3.3.1 Principles/Characteristics of Nigerian Civil Service- – 128
3.3.2 Problems of Nigerian Civil Service- – – – 134
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, INTERPRETATION AND ANALYSIS
- Data presentation, Interpretation and Analysis – – – 136
- Hypotheses Testing – – – – – – – 154
- Discussion of Findings – – – – – – 160
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
- Summary – – – – – – – – – 168
- Conclusion – – – – – – – – – 170
- Recommendations – – – – – – – 171
Bibliography – – – – – – – – 176
Appendices – – – – – – – – 184
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
The actualization of national development is mainly carried out by public organization (most especially civil service) and its efficiency and effectiveness is determined by the performance of its employees. Besides, the performance of its employees is mainly determined by the level of motivation in the organization.
So, understanding why people do the things they do on the job is not an easy task for management of an organization, whether private or public. Every organization is concerned with what it should do to achieve sustained high level of performance from its employees, which can be achieved with motivation (Nosiri, 2008:1). Kreitner and Kinicki (2004:250) view that “effective employee motivation has long been one of management’s most difficult and important duties”.
Even though, managers and administrators determine what actions to be performed and how it should be performed in the organizations, they must equally identify or determine how to energize or motivate employees to optimize their performance. The long-term key to success in business is to create jobs that optimize the organization’s requirements for productivity and efficiency while simultaneously motivating and satisfying the employee who perform those jobs (Griffin and Moorhead, 2007:118). According to Barnard cited in (Shafritz, et. al, 2005:93);
[An] essential element of organizations is the willingness of persons to contribute their individual efforts to the cooperative system. The power to cooperation, which is often spectacularly great when contrasted with that even of large numbers of individuals unorganized is nevertheless dependent upon the willingness of individual to cooperate and to contribute their efforts to the cooperative system. The contributions of personal efforts which constitute the energies of organizations are yielded by individuals because of incentives.
Based on this, the concept, motivation is vital to all organizations and the difference often observed between highly effective organizations and less effective one lies in the motivational profiles of their members. Francis (cited in Obijuru, 2012:8) concludes this fact by saying that “you can buy a man’s time, you can buy a measured man’s physical presence at a given place, you can even buy a measured number of skilled muscular motions per hour a day but cannot buy loyalty; you cannot buy devotion of hearts, mind and souls. You have to earn these things.”
This shows that managers must be effectively be committed to employ appropriate motivation to earn workers loyalty, citizenship, devotion, commitment, zeal etc.
Administrators or managers have tried in finding the proper application of motivational devices in order to achieve high performance of workers for organizational productivity. However, it has been observed that there is an excessive reliance on financial incentives/motivation as the core or only device to energizes the behaviour of workers towards achieving
organizational goals/objectives (most especially in public organizations) to some, remuneration and economic or financial motivation or incentives constitute the most important aspect of personnel management. This is in line with Fredrick Taylor’s view that economic rewards play a central role in the motivation of workers in organization.
Researchers have studied and found out that financial incentives in some situation cannot solve the issue of increasing worker’s morale. It has shown that non-financial incentive has also played an effective role in motivating workers towards high performance in organization. (see Ghosh and Ghorpade, 2009; Kinick and Williams, 2011; Robbins, 2001; Kreitner and Kinicki, 2004 and Griffin and Moorhead, 2007).
In the same vein Dewhurst, et.al (2009:2) view that:
Companies around the world are cutting back their financial incentive programme, but few have used other ways of inspiring talent…..Numerous studies have concluded that for people with satisfactory salaries, some non financial motivators are more effective than extra cash in building long-term employee engagement in most sectors, job functions and business contexts, many financial rewards mainly generate short-term boosts of energy, which can have damaging unintended consequences.
This shows that non-financial motivation like, the presence of democratic leadership style, effective communication, workers involvement/participatory management, effective job design, organizational harmony, good physical working conditions, employee empowerment, etc can play a role towards energizing or directing the behaviour of workers towards achieving organizational objectives/goals.
The Civil Service in Imo state, and Nigeria at large, which is the live-wire of the state machinery and a veritable tool for national development charged with the responsibility of implementing public policies and programmes and exercising the executive authority of government to achieve the complex and technical goals or objectives of its government need effective application of motivation by the management to perform effectively.
Many researches or works have treated on the motivation of workers in Nigerian Civil Service with great emphasis on financial incentives. However, this study will set to look at the motivation of workers towards achieving high job performance in Imo State Civil Service by focusing on the aspect of non-financial motivational techniques to increasing workers morale towards high performance and productivity. This work will center on training, democratic leadership style, employee involvement/participation, free flow of communication and effective job design, promotion as indices of non-financial motivation.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The most crucial and essential requirement for achieving high performance and productivity in organization is the presence of motivation. The absence of motivation adversely affects productivity.
There is widespread existence of ineffectiveness and inefficiency in the civil service in Imo state and Nigeria at large. One major cause of organizational inefficiency and ineffectiveness is the problem of motivation to workers in civil service in Nigeria. However, in spite of the acknowledgement and reviews on problems of motivation (most especially on financial aspects) in Imo state civil service (and Nigeria at large) the problem on how to raise and sustain motivation remains a recurrent one which has invariably lead to job dissatisfaction, absenteeism, organizational conflicts, lateness to work, low level of organizational citizenship, frequent occurrence of strikes and other negative work-related behaviours or indiscipline that militates against the survival of organization. These problems have led to the need or call for application of non-financial incentives towards achieving high productivity in organizations.
The problem focus of this study is to make a general assessment of non-financial motivation as a major factor of high performance, try to explain the link between non-financial incentive and high performance and the link between employees’ participation and their performance. Also explain how significant and effective non-financial motivation is in Imo State Civil Service.