1.1 Background of
plants, also called medicinal herbs have been discovered and used in
traditional medicine practices since prehistoric times. Plants synthesize
hundreds of chemical compounds for functions including defence again insects,
fungi, diseases and herbivorous mammals. The World Health Organization
estimates that some 80 percent of the world’s population depends mainly on
traditional medicine (Tilburt, 2008) medicinal plants are often tough and
fibrous, requiring some form of preparation to make them convenient to
administer. Common methods for the preparation of herbal medicines include
decoction, powdering and extraction with alcohol in each case yielding a
mixture of substance (Dharmananda, 1997) when a drug is identified in a
medicinal plant, commercial quantities of the drug may either be synthesized or
extracted from plant material (Atanasov, 2015).
TrichostemaLanceolatum or Vinegar weed is one of such plants used for
therapeutic purpose. It belongs to the family of Lamiaceae. It grows in
chaparral, coastal sage scrubs (Calflora, 2018).
or tea made from the leaves and flowers of trichostema lanceolatum was taken to
treat to colds, stomachaches, headaches, bladder problems and malaria, the tea
was gargled to treat inflammation of the
throat. Steam from hot infusions was sniffed into the nasal passages to
treat colds, coughs, headaches and nose bleeds. Sitting over a steaming
decoction of the leaves treated uterine trouble. The raw or boiled leaves were
crushed into a poultice to treat wounds (Bocek, 1984). Chewed leaves were
stuffed around and aching tooth.
mellitus is a group of metabolic disorder caused by increase in blood glucose
level and defects in insulin resistance, insulin action.
deficiency causes higher metabolization of free fatty acid and can cause
disorder in lipid metabolism diabetes mellitus has been recognized as a
clinical syndrome since ancient time and it remains a crippling global health
problem today. Diabetes mellitus is a group of heterogeneous, autoimmune,
hormonal and metabolic disorders often accompanied by hypertension,
hyperliderma and obesity.
diabetes mellitus also called insulin independent diabetes mellitus (IDDM occur
when the body cannot produce insulin which is needed to control blood glucose
level). Type II diabetes mellitus also called non-independent diabetes mellitus
(NIDDM) is more common, it occurs when the body produce enough insulin.
Dilapidating action of diabetes mellitus qualifies it as a disease of major
public health concern, and epidermiological survey showed that it is the
seventh leading cause of death Worldwide (Samdi, 2007). Additionally, diabetes
mellitus prevalence has been increasing steadily all over the world, it is
estimated that 366million people had diabetes mellitus in 2011, and 46 million
deaths in 2011 was caused by diabetes mellitus, by 2030 the number of people
living with diabetes mellitus would have risen to 552 million. Long term
complications from diabetes mellitus in include heart disease and stroke. A
lipid profile is a direct measure of three blood components: cholesterol,
triglycerides, and high density lipoproteins (HDLs). Cholesterol is a vital
substance that the body uses to produce digestion aiding material, hormones and
cell membranes. Cholesterol and triglycerides are transported in the blood by
combinations of lipids and proteins called lipoproteins HDLs and the “good” or
“healthy” cholesterol are lipoproteins made mostly of proteins and little
cholesterol. HDLS help to clear cholesterol deposits in blood vessels left by
low density lipoprotein LDLS.
trends to lower “good” cholesterol levels and raise triglyceride and “bad”
cholesterol levels which increases the risk for heart disease and stroke. The
prevalence of dyslipidemia in diabetes mellitus is 95%. (Chattanda, 2008) the
dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD) and other
complications of atherosclerosis, diabetes dyslipidemia comprises a triad of
raised triglycerides, reduced high density lipoprotein (HDL) and excess of
small dense low density lipoprotein (LDL) particles.
abnormalities are prevalent in diabetes mellitus because insulin resistance or
deficiency affects key enzymes and pathways in lipid metabolism.
several synthetic antidiabetic medicinal preparations of notable capacity to
act as agents of glycemic control. However, from toxicological standpoint,
alternative herbal formulation remedies are sometimes preferred to synthetic
antidiabetic drugs because of its minimal or no side effects.
trichostema lanceolatum has been reported by several researchers to lower blood
glucose level, this study is therefore geared towards evaluating the possible
effect of trichostema lanceolatum on the known dyslipidemia associated with