The study assessed the farmers perception of the effect of
oil spillage on agricultural land of farmers in Udu Local Government of Delta
State. The specific objectives of the work are to: Identify causes of oil
spillage in the area and ascertain farmers’ perceived problem of oil spillage
on their environment and agricultural activities, among others. A multi-stage
random sampling technique was used to select 60 contact farmers for the study.
Data were collected by the use of questionnaire. Data collected were analyzed
using, frequency distribution, percentages mean and likert type technique. The
major finding of the research shows that a larger proportion of the people in
the study area are engaged in crop production fishing and trading. It was
equally discovered that often oil spill, through ocean surge and tidal flows,
and spill from corroded pipelines are serious environmental problems plaguing
the area which have led to impoverishment of the people. Base on the findings,
it was recommended the government and the various agencies connected with oil production
should establish a direct efficient communication channel for the public to
report oil spill incidents to relevant authorities for urgent response and
attention, among others.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Table of content
List of tables
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of problem
1.3 Objective of the study
1.4 Justification of the study
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 An over view of oil spillage in Nigeria 8
2.2 The effect of crude oil spillage 13
2.3 Causes of oil spillage
2.4 Nigeria economy and the petroleum industry 18
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.1 Area of study 29
3.2 Sampling procedure
3.3 Instrument of data collection
3.4 Method of data analysis
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
4.1 Socio-economics characteristics of farmers 33
4.2 Agricultural and related activities
4.3 Causes of oil spillage
4.4 Effects of oil spillage on environment and
Agricultural activities 43
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary of findings
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1 Age distribution of farmers.
Table 2 Distribution
of respondents according to marital status 35
Table 4 Distribution of farmers household size 35
Table 5 Educational status of farmers
Table 6 Sex distribution of respondents 37
Table 7 Farming experience of farmers 38
Table 8 Distribution of farmers Years of farming
Table 9 Agricultural and related activities 39
Table 10 Estimate size of respondents’ farmland 40
Table 11 Distribution of respondents according to
Table 12 Farmers’ response on causes of oil spillage.
1.2 Statement of the Problem.
Whenever there is an oil spill on agricultural and natural
land (hard and water) spreading immediately takes place. The gaseous and liquid
components evaporate, some get dissolved in water and even oxidized and some
undergo changes and eventually sink to the bottom by gravitational action.
The soil is then contaminated with grass effect upon the
terrestrial life. As the evaporation of the volatile lower molecular weight
component affect aerial life, so that dissolution of the less volatile
component with the resultant effect on aquatic life (atlas 2001).
Once oil is released on water, the process of spreading
takes place immediately the process stand to be the most significant. Some
forces that influence the lateral spreading of oil even on calm water include;
force, which brings about decreasing film thickness
tension and inertia force, the force of gravity is found to be proportional to
the film thickness.
The causes of oil spillage are:
Leakage from oil pipelines and flow lines, oil tank over
flow, blow out of oil wells, sabotage by agencies, pipeline Vandalization, Lack
of maintenance of oil pipelines. The research questions that now arise are:
What cause(s) oil spillage on farmlands?
How do farmers perceive or view oil spillage on their lands?
Do they see it as having a disastrous effect on the agro-ecology? Is soil
deterioration caused by oil spill attributable to unemployment and improper
What are the agricultural or other related activities oil
spillage could have effect on?
1.3 Objective of the study
The broad objective of the study is to examine the effects
of oil spillage and natural environment of farmers in the study are. –
The specific Objectives are:
Describe the socio economic characteristics of farmers in
the study area.
Identify causes of oil spillage in the study area
To ascertain farmer’s perceived effects of oil spillage on
environment and agricultural activities.
1.4 Justification of the study
This study has attempted to assess and evaluate the
significance of the impacts generated by oil spill incidents. A thorough
environmental impact assessment prior to oil exploitation and exploration in
the rich regions. To stress the establishing of regional spill respond centre
along coast line or in oil producing area and use the data collected and
measures, that will help in managing oil spill problem in Nigeria and the study
It helps to assure that communities can live safely with
pipelines, by developing the technologies that detect or monitor the main
causes of pipelines failures, developing a standard for the content and
distribution of public education programmes of operators to enhance analysis of
the risks that pipeline pose to the people and environment through information
Enhancing readiness of both pipeline operators and local
communities to recognize and mount effective and timely responses to pipeline
accidents. To know the development measures and regulatory standards for leak
detection technology and of related best practices and to study the preventive
measures in general which is better than cure.
This study will be useful for every individual, organization
and those communities that are liable to frequent oil spill and other related
environmental pollution posed by oil spills to the natural environment, and
will help greatly in alleviating the problem.
Other disciplines that may find this study useful or that
will use the study are;
The researchers, Environmentalist, Agriculturalist,
fertilizer institutions, the oil producing states, the communities prone to
frequent oil spill and every one aspiring to build a wealth of knowledge of
environmental consequences ‘or either for examination purpose or other