The research was carried out based on the perception of
farmers of the effect of climate change on farm produce.
The aim of the study was to identify various climatic
factors that can affect farming system
which include sunrise (hot temperature), winter, equinox, rainfall, summer,
coldness, wind etc and also places where lakes, rivers ocean / sea, stream,
rocks/ hills forest etc are available .
Critically, the study revealed that rainfall and dry season
are the common features in Nigerian climate which are the natural determinant
for farm produce.
The study assessed the problems associated with climate
change and how farmers can cope with such effects.
It was deduced from
the study that high temperature can be harmful to crop produce and excessive
rainfall can result to flooding and washing off nutrients in soil
and making it unfit for planting.
The study revealed facts that farmers are aware of numerous factors that can be responsible for climate change such as
changes in rainfall, excessive wind,
high temperature and shortage of rainfall.
The research was carried out in Lagos State Agricultural
Supply Input Authority, Ojo Lagos State.
Sixty (60) respondents were selected as the sample size for
the study. The three (3) null (Ho) hypothesis formulated for the study were all
rejected and the alternate forms were accepted.
The instrument for the study was the questionnaires and it
contained (30) thirty research questions.
Discussions and findings were based on the outcome of the
The researcher holds confidence that if the finding and
discussions made in this study are given due
consideration and implemented, it will go a long way to enable our farmers to cope with climate change to
enhance farm produce.
The theme of this research is based on the perception of
farmers of the effect of climate change on farm produce. It has been logically
argued that climate change may positively and negatively affect the growth of crop in agricultural system.
In some broken down analysis, climate is a sole determinant
for the success of farm produce and its
harvest as well. Emphasis are hereby made below under some given headings.
1.1BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
According to Kolbert., (2006) climate encompasses the temperatures, humidity, atmospheric pressure,
winds, rainfall, atmospheric particle count and numerous other meteorological
elements in a given region over long periods of time, as opposed to the term weather, which refers to current
activity of these same elements.
The climate of a location is affected by its latitude,
terrain, altitude, persistent ice or snow cover, as well as nearby oceans and
Climates can be classified using parameters such temperature
and rainfall to define specific climate types. (Seiz, 2007)
According to Haeberli, (2008) from Montana State University,
climate change is any long term significant change in the expected patterns of
average weather of a specific region (or, more relevantly to contemporary
socio-political concerns, of the earth as a whole) over an appropriately
significant period of time.
Susanne, and Veizer (2008) revealed that climate change
reflects abnormal variations to the expected climate within the earth’s atmosphere and subsequent
effects on other parts of the earth, such as in the ice caps over durations ranging from decades to million of
Reports revealed by the inter-governmental panel on climate
change (IPCC 2007) stated that climate
change in the research of a great many
factors including the dynamic processes of the earth itself, external forces
including variation in sunlight intensity, and more recently by human
activities, which might in future be deliberate
geo-engineering. External factors that can shape climate are often
called climate forcing and include such processes as variations in solar
radiation, deviations in the Earths orbit and the level of greenhouse gas
There have been so many variations on carbondioxide(Co2)
during the last 50 million years. The increased carbondioxide level are thought
to exacerbate the heating effects of the greenhouse effect by reading the
re-radiation of heat from the sun and, therefore, increasing the temperature
contained in the atmosphere.
As the ability of the atmosphere to capture and recycle energy
emitted by the Earth’s surface is essential to a stable climate, this
heightened temperature may introduce a de-stabilizing influence and potentially
affect global weather patterns and eventually, long-term climate change.
(Source: Buckley, and Wallace, 2008)
Framers efforts on yielding mass harvest and encouraging
large plantation may be seriously terminated and hampered from the perception
of climate change. Where alternative instruments are not introduced to
counteract the factors militating against favourable climate on farm produce
this may lay a set back on agricultural input and output by our farmers.
It obvioused that climate change had contributed towards
initiating basic subsistence farming system order than the mechanized farming
product for large market of farm produce.
For example, a region where climate change had hampered the
possibility of regular actual rainfall variably, water system irrigation can be
applied to artificially supply wet contents on crop growth and improving
Farmers in Nigeria today are faced with variable challenges
on climate change making the agricultural sector prone to difficulties in
enhancing crop production as a result of weak alternative facilities,
equipments and scientific instruments to improve the range of farming.
Dr Daniel (2008) from the University of Maiduguri revealed
findings that climate change plays a significant role in agriculture by setting
up limits for crop production. The main climatic elements in agriculture are
temperature, moisture, sunlight, wind and evaporation. Most crops are sensitive to episodes of high
temperature. High temperatures between 45oc and 55oc that occur for at least 30
minutes directly, damage crop leaves in most environments, and lower
temperatures between 35-40oc can be damaging if they persist longer.
Awosika, and Ajayi, (2002) opined that vulnerability of
crops to damage by high temperatures
varies with developmental stage thus, high temperatures during reproductive
development are particularly injurious.
For example, to maize at tussling, to soybean at flowering and to wheat
at grain filling.`
Soybean in one of crops that seems to have the ability to
recover from heat stress, perhaps, because it is in determinate.
Whereas as stated by Adefolau (2000) food crops like yam,
cocoyam, potatoes, cassava can get damage (burnt) due to excessive heat
Precipitation, being the primary source of soil moisture is
probably the most important factor determining the productivity of corps. While
global climate models predict an overall increase in mean global precipitation, their results
also show the potential for changed
hydrological regimes in most places.
Ojo (2000) a change in climate can cause changes in total precipitation, within season
pattern, and between season variability for crop productivity, a change in the
pattern of precipitation events may be even more important than a change in the
annual precipitation. The water regime of crops is also vulnerable to a
potential rise in the daily rate and alerted seasonal pattern of precipitation
events may be even more important than a change in the annual precipitation.
The water regime of crops is also vulnerable to a potential rise in the daily
rate and altered seasonal pattern of evapotranspiration, brought on by warm
temperature, drier air, or windier conditions.
Drought conditions may be brought about by lower amounts of
Oni (2001) opines that farm produce and yield quantity are
likely to suffer if dry periods occur during critical developmental stages. In
most grain crops, flowering, pollination and grain filling are especially
sensitive to water stress, heat stress and drought stresses often occur
simultaneously one contributing to the other.
High solar radiance and high winds often accompany these conditions.
When crops are subjected to drought stress, their stomata close, such closure
reduces transportation and consequently, raises plant temperatures. Excessively
wet years, on the other hand, may cause farm produce declines due to water logging and increased pest
infestation (Dr. Daniel, 2008).
Intense burst of rainfall may damage younger plants and
promote water logging of standing crops with repining grain, as well as soil
erosion. The extent of crop damage depends on the duration of precipitation and
flooding, crop developmental stage, air and soil temperatures.
1.2STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The research tends to examine the perception of farmers of
the effect of climate change on farm produce.
Climate change may serve as a factor that can hinder crop
yield and as such bring to an end the agricultural activities of farmers.
It is a problem that if farmers have no means to face and
tackle the global climate models affecting yield processes farm produce can
maximally decline due to acute change in climate. But it is believed that this
can be controlled through some adaptation options as proposed and laid down by
Dr. Adejuwon (2004) from Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU). It has been revealed
in his findings and discussions and likewise other related scholars.
Climate change will be a bone of contention on farmers
posing barriers to actual farm produce until proper adjustment and technical
adaptation models are absorbed and utilized by our farmers.
1.3PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The objectives of the research are stated below as follows.
examine the various climate change and how they affect farm produce in Nigeria.
appraise possible adaptation options that can be utilized by farmers for
responding to climate change.
create an awareness on climate change and how it can be controlled on farm
produce by farmers to assess the factors militating climate change and the
problems faced by farmers.
iv. To assess
the factors militating climate change and the problems faced by farmers on farm
The following research questions had been formulated for the
research as follows:
climate change affect farm produce in Nigeria?
farmers respond to climate change through possible adaptation options on farm
climate change be controlled in farm produce by farmers through a critical
iv. What are
the factors militating climate change and the problems faced by farmers on farm
The null hypotheses were formulated for the research as
Ho: Climate change
has no significant effect on farm produce in agricultural system in Nigeria.
Ho: There is no significant responses to farmers to climate
change through possible adaptation models.
Ho: There is no significant relationship between the factors
responsible for climate change and problems encountered by farmers on farm
1.6SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study reversals the factors responsible for climate
change and the effects they have on farm produce.
The research relates the basic problems encountered by
farmers on farm produce through climate change.
The research reveals alternative models as adaptation
options that can be utilized and experimented by farmers in counteracting
climate change on farm produce. The study shows the interrelationship of
climate change and the problems of farmers on agricultural produce.
The study will reveal how climate change affect the various
crops in farming system and the means that can be adopted to prevent any
further damage on such crops.
The study will relate variably that climate change can pose
storage on farm produce thereby affecting the marketing system of agricultural
out put and lead to high cost per unit of produce.
Farmers, agricultural scientists, food technologists,
scientists and teachers will device possible solution from this study as a
reference materials in tackling and counteracting climate change on farm
The research serves as a resource knowledge to government in
taking necessary steps towards responding to climate change and maintain
technology standard in agricultural sector in Nigeria.
LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study is limited to Lagos State Agricultural Supply
Input Authority of Ojo Local District Area of Lagos State. A selection of sixty
(60) respondents will be made randomly by the researcher. These respondents include
male and female alike. They shall be used for collecting respondence as data
fro the study.
The researcher was confronted by major constraints to carry
out this research and they include:
Financial problems, stress, energy wasted by the researcher.
And the long distance to be covered and also the pains in selecting and meeting
the respondence to gather useful information for the study.
1.8DEFINITION OF TERMS
Farmer: A person who grows field crops and or manages
orchards or vineyards or raises livestock or poultry.
Agriculture: refers to the production of food and goods
through farming and forestry and poultry keeping.
Farm: A field, for planting crops and harvesting them and
also a place meant for raising livestock.
Forestry: the science or practice of planting and taking
care of tress and forest.
Climate: The regular pattern of weather conditions of a
Weather: A set of all the phenomena occurring in a given
atmosphere at a given time.