This research project investigate Poultry Farming and
Effects on Development: A case study of Ibarapa Region. The chapters are
divided into five chapters.
The first chapter contains background of the study, scope,
purpose of study, hypothesis and definition of terms.
Chapter two contains literature review and Historical of
study area. This section provides information on works, which has been done on
Chapter three deals with Research Methodology while chapter
four deals with analysis of data collected through questionnaire to test for
Chapter five contain the recommendation, summary and
1.1 THE HISTORICAL
TRENDS OF GEOGRAPHY TEACHING IN NIGERIA
In Nigeria, the teaching of Geography in the school
curriculum could be dated back to the colonial era when western education was
introduced in the country. Geography as a discipline is the study of man and
his environment that is physical, political, economic and socio-cultural
environments. However, Geography teaching in Nigeria is discussed in this
context from the historical perspective and in chronological order from
colonial era when formal education was introduced to the post colonial era and
even to the present time.
The introduction of the Western education in Nigeria brought
in the teaching of Geography in the country. The teaching of Geography during
this time was based merely on memorization and mainly on description.
According to Mayasan (1969) the teaching of geography in
Nigeria during this time was christened “Cupes and Bays” geography because
emphasis was on the memorization of the names of places, capes and bays of the
world, population of important towns and cities among others. He opined that
infact, geography teaching only reflected the emphasis on the memorization of
mountain, major capitals of the world, rivers, oceans etc. without any means of
the verification of the facts. Question such as, what is the lake?
differentiate between a lake and an Island? What is the highest mountain in the
world? Who discovered America? How many continents are there in the world? Were
asked the learners in school in geography examinations.
Moreover, what learners learnt during this time had very
little relation to their own immediate environments and facts given to learners
were incoherent and disjointed. That is they were not sequentially and
logically presented to learners, let alone been quantified. Geography teaching
was therefore ill-organized, infact it was not fully developed into a
well-recognized and respectable discipline with carefully organized knowledge
and methodology as it is today. The facts supplied then were those collected
from the navigators, travelers, explorers and voyagers such as mango park,
Americo vespucci, Magellan, Sebastian Delcano among others.
These had circumnavigated the then “globe” and they have
discovered many features both on the land in the seas and oceans. They
discovered the longitudinal profile of River Niger in Africa from the source in
the Futa Jallon Highland in West Africa through in Nigeria where it enters the
Atlantic Ocean with a deltaic mouth. American continent was discovered by
Americo Vespucci from where the name America was derived while Mgellan
discovered the strait in South America at the extreme Southern tip of South
American Continent which he christened “strait of Magellan” Just to immortalize
his name. Delcano was the one that discovered Indian Ocean and some other
features in that area that is, “For East”. The Crisis in the teaching of
geography was a global phenomenon then, it was not peculiar to Nigeria alone.
Furthermore, during this era in Nigeria, the geography
teaching was more of western oriented curriculum because the teaching was
mainly based on “determinist” and “foreign regionalisms”. This connotes that
“geographical determinism” was based on the idea that the destiny of man was
irrevocably connected with the natural environment. That is, the environment
where man finds himself, determines his ways of life, in terms of political,
social, religious, cultural, economic and infact all his human endeavour.
Hence, man lives in consonance with the environmental peculiarities of where he
finds himself. Later geographers concentrated on the study of specific regions
and the human inhabitants so as to fashion out a meaningful and organized
This period witnessed the study of Western Europe and a
couple of her overseas colonies or settlements, since little or nothing was
known about other or parts of the world. This culminated in the study of
foreign part such as Britain, Canada, United States of America, parts of India,
France, New Zealand and Australia. These were incorporated into the geography curriculum
for the Nigeria students. The learners in Nigeria knew little or nothing about
their own country because the geography curriculum was more outward looking
than Inward looking during this era.
In 1960, when Nigeria was emancipated, the school subjects,
including geography were reviewed in consonance with societal needs. The new
school curricula reflected the needs of Nigerians in place of the
colonial-oriented curricula. Infact, some subjects like Greeks and Latin were
completely removed from the school system.
The teaching of geography this time was more inward inclined
than outward-oriented as it was before. The teaching took into consideration
the potentials, resources and immediate needs of the Nigerian learners and the
people in general. It was realized in the teaching of geography during this
period, that the learners must properly and comprehensively study their own
local or immediate environment before being exposed to the study of the other
parts of the globe; because as the aphorism states “charity begins at homes”
which is in consonance with the pedagogical principle that teaching must start
from known to unknown, from simple to complex and from concrete to abstract.
Based on this principle, the teaching of geography after the
independence in Nigeria emphasized the relevant aspects – local geography,
field work and map work.
This involves the teaching of the learners about their
immediate environment. It exposes the learners to the systematic studies of
their local environment. The identification and proper analysis of the
environment, human and non-human resources, the assessment of the environmental
potentials and challenges were also achieved. Therefore, the teaching of the
local environments in geography was named “Local Geography” which formed the
bedrock or foundation of the early training of learners in the geography teaching.
Prior to the introduction of local geography in the Nigerian
schools, learners were exposed to the study of foreign environments such as
Britain, Canada, U.S.A., Australia, etc. For examples, Nigerian learners could
talk emphatically and copiously on the Praire land of Canada, Pampas of
Argentina, Greatlakes of U.S.A., Merino sheep rearing in Australia among
others, with little or no knowledge about their own local environment.
Pedestal academic foundation is established. Local geography
inculcates in the learners such skills as critical reasoning, sound judgments,
Keen observation data collection techniques and analyses which are crucial in
the learners’ academic endeavours and infact in other human endeavour.
Learners are more exposed and familiar with their immediate
environment. Learners get to have comprehensive knowledge about their immediate
environment and they could related what they have learnt to the environment
Opportunities for employment are enhanced. Since local geography
exposes learners to the political, economic and socio-cultural aspects of their
locality, their productivity or efficiency are enhanced and thus prepared and
made versatile for the labour market.
Provision for training in good citizenship. Local geography
exposes their learners to problems and challenges of their immediate
environment and they find solution to them because they have been able to
identify these problems. Hence, preparing them for good citizenship and
In conclusion, the teaching of geography in Nigeria has
passed through different historical stages viz: era of capes and bays,
determinism age and post independence era. Thus the making of geography as a
well organized and meaningful discipline culminated in the introduction of
local geography, fieldwork and map work which are now the bedrocks of the
modern day geography teaching.
1.2 Statement of
The major problems to address in this study are the various
psychological factors that are inherent in the effective teaching of geography
in secondary schools in Oyo West Local Government Area of Oyo State. The study
intends to carry out research on the following questions among other things:-
are the factors that hinder effective teaching of geography in secondary
are the factors that hinder effective learning of geography by students in
are the factors for the low interest of students in choosing geography as a
informed psychological factors against effective teaching of geography in
informed poor performance in geography in both internal and external
examinations in secondary schools?
– Why are secondary schools students often
desist from offering Geography as a course in secondary schools?
1.3 Objectives of
This study aims at considering a number of objectives which
include the followings:.
Orientating teachers of geography in secondary schools in Oyo West Local
Government Area on how to teach the subject in order to enhance effective
learning on the parts of the students.
Addressing some of the psychological problems such as incompetent
teachers to handle the subject, unavailability of resource textbooks and
materials, wide course content on the subject, among others.
sensitizing both the teachers and students of geography in secondary
schools in the local government on the importance of teacher-students
relationships in order to improve performance in the subject.
orientating the secondary school students in the Local Government Area
on how to develop more interest in the subject.
1.4 Significance of
The fundamental importance of this study is to use it as a
medium of bridge to the wide gap between the teaching and learning of geography
in secondary schools, particularly in Oyo West Local Government Area. In
addition to that, the significance of this study is also to be used as a
veritable medium of educating secondary school students in developing more
interest in the subject matter.
1.5 Scope of the
The study is intended to be completed within context of one
month or there-about. In doing this, various materials such as internet
materials, textbooks, journals and so on will be consulted. Also, a well
structured questionnaire will be used for the collection of information from
secondary schools in Oyo West Local Government Area.