THE ROLE OF ACCOUNTANT IN THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANIZATION (A STUDY OF NIGERIAN BOTTLING COMPANY ONITSHA)
The main purpose of this project is to find out the Role of accountants in the economic development of Nigeria with particular reference to the Nigeria Bottling Company Onitsha. The Role of accountants in the management of business organization varies and highly challenging. The accountants who make use of the concepts and principles of account concerns themselves with the recording, analysis, directing and co-operate the preparation of forecast, budget and other financial plans. Since the work of accountants has been identified as a necessity in the economic development of Nigeria, NBC in particular, this research is tailored towards identifying and recommending appropriately, the salient things which all users of accounting information must watch out for in all matters concerning the improvement of their organization. In all, hypothesis were formulated based on the specific components or facts of the accountants in NBC Onitsha and some final year students. Accounting related information were collected through review of relevant literature. From these, a questionnaire was designed and distributed to 50 employee of Nigeria Bottling Company Onitsha and 30 final years of accountancy students. Out of these a total of 30 and 10 respectively were recovered. A careful analysis of the responses revealed that accountants have a great significant role in the economic development of Nigeria. As a result of this findings of recommendations, organizations are advised to make the best use of accountants in their daily financial transaction in order to sustain the life of their business and forestall available misuse of funds and resources. To this effect, it is very expedient to employ well meaningful accountants in all organization, Nigeria Bottling Company in particular to ensure effective growth and development of our economy as a whole.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Role of Accountant in Economic Development of Nigeria, it has to do with the role in which Accountant plays in the Economic Development of Nigeria. The concept of Economic Development has to with innovation and improvement in the quality of life of the people it is about sustained rise in the standard of living of the people overtime, whether in advance or less developed countries, nations, government superiors state of affairs or superiors they currently enjoy. To achieve this, deliberate efforts are to be made in other to implement people–oriented Policies that would raise their capacity to produce and earn more. This will manifest in the form of growth in the cross domestic product (GAP) of the economy, and extension improvement in the size of per capital income. When this occurs on a sustain basis with positive impact on the citizens, quality of life. Development is said to have taken place.
Since 1960 when Nigeria gained it independence, for instance the place of economic growth and development has not yet meet the aspiration of founding fathers of the nation in spite of the many development and rolling plans that have been meticulously draw up by the government. Although a lot of resources have been committed to the development of some economic projects, the results have been dismal. In fact, that the Nigeria economy is presently in a quagmire, is enough evidence of the failure of past effort to pull the nations up by its bootstrap through the instrumentality of development and rolling plans.
Thus:- the basic thrust of development policies, in a less developed country like Nigeria is to provide as many people as possible with the means of overcoming the helplessness and misery arising from a lack of food, health, education, security of life and property which pose serious challenges to their longevity. Here lies the justification for the choice of topic which seeks to consider the role of accountants in the economic development.
Firstly, accountant is a person skilled in keeping, examining, recording or inspecting the accounting of an organization or a nation. Accountants plays a very vital role in the development of Nigeria economy. They also contribute efficiently to the development of some business organization in Nigeria example (Nigeria Bottling Company). The role of accountants can never be looked down if the aim and purpose of the country are to be achieved.
According to Agbebiyi (2000), it is obvious that accounting as a scientific process is about provision of financial information needed to take economic decisions particularly in respect of the acquisition and use of scarce corporate resources as well as the elimination of waste in the wealth creation chain. It is this professional discipline that involves systematic gathering classification, recording analyzing, interpretation and transmission of information based on data that are of monetary in nature. Such resources that is the relationship between its assets and liability, the productive activities and profitability of a business a required by owners and managers alike in order to assess the health of the organization and ascertain the changes in the stock of the wealth of shareholders. According to Professor Charles Magers, Accounting incorporate four major functions which are communication, measurement control and decision making. Accounting as a means of communication involves the submission of financial reports to various units in the economy. In terms of measurement, accountancy through the use of account, arts as a major of wealth based on the original cost of an objective which lately developed in measuring efficiency of operation and performance.
Accounting as a means of control is exercised by the creation of book-keeping record and legislation and by the standing of the professional body to act as an independent witness and carryout and audit function. As a result of activities, information is communicated on the basis of standardized system of measurement and results which can be relied on when making decision. Government may use published accounting information to know the extent of providing social amenities to the public; they can also use this information in knowing what is due in taxation and government tribute.
This accounting information can equally be used in preparing the country’s budget and determining how to generate income and ways of revenue expenditure. Accounting information, also are required in an economy to meet up with the stated objectives and purpose (making profit or gain) in the economy and it is the duty of an accountant to prove such an accounting information. Beyond the role of providing information to the public, proprietors even government, the accountant has over time played the following crucial roles in the economic development process of the nation they are record keeping which assisted the merchant in determining the value he has added to his wealth at a given period. Providing financial information, internal control measures, attestation function, and tax functions professional leadership among others.Furthermore, accountants gives financial report of a nation to ascertain the financial position of such nation, perform some audit function, evaluation of financial reports and finally, recommends measures and strategies to enhance the performance of the economy.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
1. To find out the extent at which the accountant, provide audit reports. Do audit reports still add credibility to today financial statement?
2. Are the information provided by Accountants still effective in making business decision today?
3. Are the audited aliting information provided helpful to tax official in assessing the taxable in an organization?
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
As a result of the prevalent condition of Nigeria economy and dwindling of most business in recent times there is need to realize how significant the role of an accountant was in order to develop to economy efficiency. And for this reason, there are also need to study the importance of accountant in the economic development of Nigeria.
The purpose of this study is this:-
1.To find out how production of correct accounting information has led to profitable economic decision.
2.To determine how the proper accountability is a means of safe guarding the assets of the establishments.
3.To investigate the influence of nations ability to employ the services of qualified or professional workers in economic development.
Importance and significance of the study the findings of the study will throw more light on the importance of accountants in the economic development of Nigeria and why it is good for every economy to have accountants in its management.
This study will be directed towards the following:
1.It will enable the people to know the profitable economic decision
2.It will help the economy in safe-guarding the assets of the establishment.
3.With the knowledge of the role of Accountant in the economic development, it will minimize the source of the problem encountered in the Nigeria economy.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
For the purpose of effective investigation on the sole of accountant in economic development of Nigeria the following research questions have been raised:-
1. Does audit report still add credibility to today’s financial statements?
2. Are the information provided by accountant still effective in business decision making today?
3. Are the aliting information provided helpful to tax official in assessing the taxable income of organization?
1.5. SCOPE/DELIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The role of accountant in the economic development of Nigeria could have been very vest tedious as mostly research as mostly research work to undertake, but the topic has been limited to a particular area, Nigeria Bottling Company Onitsha, which made it researchable for the researcher. Like every research work a bit of things posed as delimitations to the researcher. This work also can be limited to the basic concepts, theories, are principles and procedures employed by accountants in the performance of their duties so as to uplift the nations economy.
1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS
ACCOUNTANTS: This is a person trained and skilled to keep examine or inspect the financial accounts of organization.
DEVELOPMENT: The act of improving the quality of life of people and sustained rise in the standard of living of the people overtime. It is also an act of bringing out the economic responsibilities of a nation or an economy.
ORGANIZATION: An economic group of people deliberately created for the purpose of achieving some specific objectives and measuring economic performance.
TAX ASSESSMENT: To determine the amount that is payable by tax payer through the tax assessment authority (TAA).
FINANCIAL STATEMENT: A summary of figure facts showing the financial condition of a business which includes assets (what the business owns) liabilities (what the business owes) and the net worth of capital account (the owners equity in the business).
GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT: It is the gross value of the national output produced by domestic factors of production or indigenous factors of production. We get the gross domestic products by subtracting all the domestic output produced by foreign factors and add the foreign output produced in the country by Nigeria factor.