The broad environmental issues faced by the oil and gas exploration and production industry are manifested at both local and global levels. They include: habitat protection and biodiversity, air emissions, marine and freshwater discharges,incidents and oil spills, and soil and groundwater contamination.
Research Methodology: The aim of this chapter is to briefly intimate the reader with various research designs used by the researchers. And Chi-square were used to analyse the techniques used.
Presentation, analysis and interpretation of data: This chapter deals with the presentations, analysis and interpretation of the data collected. The data collected will be used to answer the research questions and test the hypothesis.
In conclusion have gone ahead to erect effective legal regimes in the form of laws and regulations to control and reduce this environmental menace.
The oil and gas industry is truly global, with operations conducted in every corner of the globe, from Alaska to Australia,from Peru to China, and in every habitat from Arctic to desert, from tropical rainforest to temperate woodland, from mangrove to offshore.
The global community will rely heavily on oil and gas supplies for the foreseeable future. World primary energy consumption in 1994 stood at nearly 8000 million tonnes of oil equivalents (BP Statistical Review of World Energy, June1995); oil and gas represented 63 per cent of world energy supply, with coal providing 27 per cent, nuclear energy 7 percent and hydro-electric 3 per cent. The challenge is to meet world energy demands, whilst minimizing adverse impact on the environment by conforming to current good practice.
The exploitation of oil and gas reserves has not alwaysbeen without some ecological side effects. Oil spills,damaged land, accidents and fires, and incidents of air andwater pollution have all been recorded at various times andplaces. In recent times the social impact of operations, especially in remote communities, has also attracted attention.The oil and gas industry has worked for a long time to meetthe challenge of providing environmental protection. Muchhas already been achieved but the industry recognizes thateven more can be accomplished.
The United Nations Conference on Environment andDevelopment (UNCED) held in Rio de Janeiro in June1992—’The Earth Summit’—focused world attention onthe close links that exist between the environment and socioeconomic development. The Summit reviewed global environmental issues and resulted in two conventions (theFramework Convention on Climate Change and theConvention on Biological Diversity), as well as the RioDeclaration and Agenda 21—plan of action. The centralmessage of Agenda 21 is one of interdependence and cross-sector partnership, and the plan of action provided a newapproach to the wide-ranging socio-economic and environmental challenges facing the world community.
The broad environmental issues faced by the oil and gasexploration and production industry are manifested at bothlocal and global levels. They include: habitat protection andbiodiversity, air emissions, marine and freshwater discharges,incidents and oil spills, and soil and groundwater contamination. The industry has responded to these issues. The challenge is to ensure that all operations conform to currentgood practice.
The continual evolution of the environmental agendamust also be taken into account. Industry places muchemphasis on establishing effective management systems andhas gone a long way to ensure that environmental issues arekey components of corporate culture, with the issues relatedto health, safety and environment often being consideredtogether, because they have much in common.
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The Plant commenced operations with a total number of 1,376 staff, made up of 138 expatriates Technical Back-Up Services (TBS), and 1,246 Nigerian Staff.
However, in 1999 EPCL started a gradual phase-out of the TBS Personnel as most Nigerian staff gained adequate experience on the operation and maintenance of the Plants.
At 138 expatriate TBS Personnel the cost of about $2 million per month was abominable as it had negative impact on the cost of operations and cash flow for the Company. Today, the cost stands at about $0.64 million for 43 TBS Personnel.
Historically, the Eleme Petrochemicals Complex Project was started in the Project Engineering Division of the NNPC under Mr. S. A. Kufeji as the General Manager, championed by Dr. E. I.Onyia, as Manager Petrochemicals.
In early 1982, the Petrochemicals Division of the NNPC was created, with Mr. 0. 0. Lolomari as the General Manager, while Dr. E. I. Onyia continued his lead push for the petrochemicals programme. Later that year, NNPC signed the Consultancy Agreement with Foster Wheeler International Corporation of Reading, UK.
Following a major re-organization of NNPC in October 1985, Dr.T. M. John was appointed the co-ordinator of the Petrochemical Sector. During another restructuring of the NNPC in 1988, Dr. T. M. John became the first Managing Director of Eleme Petrochemicals Company Limited (EPCL).
1.4 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main objectives of this element of industrial fire engineering in the prevention of fire haroccus are as below:
- To provide an orderly emergency response plan for all industrial workers.
- To ensure all exit routes, emergency staircases are not obstructed and can be used in an orderly fashion during emergencies.
- To ensure fast, organised and smooth evacuation of industry during emergencies.
- To train fire engineers and emergency evacuation officers to conduct their duties successfully.
- To test the working conditions and effectiveness of all fire and emergency equipment for all industrys in Imo State.