TABLE OF CONTENT
Table of content v
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Statement of the Research Problem 3
1.3 Objective of the Study 5
1.4 Significance of the Study 6
1.5 Research Question 7
1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study 9
1.7 Plan of the Study 9
1.8 Definition of the Key Terms 11
2.0 Historical of Nigeria Bottling Company PLC 14
2.1 Decision-Making in Management 18
2.2 Cost Volume Profit (Break-Event) Analysis
2.3 Limitation of the Model 21
2.4 Decision under Certainty, Uncertainty and Rise
2.5 Role of decision models 23
3.1 Method of Data Collection 25
3.2 Population and Sample Size 29 3.3 Sample and Sampling Technique 30
3.4 Method of Data Analysis 31
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1 Discussion of the Analysis 33
4.2 Discussion of Finding 37
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary of Finding 38
5.2 Conclusion 39
5.3 Recommendation 40
The accounting system is a major qualitative information acquired in almostevery organization for and it therefore provides information for the three broad purpose namely as internal reporting to managers for use, in planning and control routine operation and non-routine operation, formulation or major plan and polices and lastly the external reporting to stock-holders, government, debenture holder and other outside parties. Therefore the managers depends largely upon quality and quantity of data received. Thus, information flows in the management information system too by influence the effectiveness of decision making.
According to Hornaren (2014) the question of what accounting system to buy, must focus on how decision and consequent benefit are going to be affected. One must also ask what decision will result from accounting data and what outcome will ensure from decision making. Accounting report, which are financial model or company operations, model are useful because they provide conceptual representation or realities, enabling the decision makers to anticipate and measure the effect of alternative actions.
Decision-making is choosing among alternatives it occurs as managers perform their planning and controlling function. A decision model is one, which affect the performance of management planning and controlling functions, but only to extent that management delegate when the model was constructed and implemented the functions. In every organization, the accountants is the quantitative expert, and to retain and improve his status, and also the accountant should be aware of how the mathematical models may improve planning and evaluating the quantitative sources of decision recommendation, as the accountant is usually a member of the top management team in every organization.
According to Thranf (2014) general stated that a model is defined as a representative of an actual object of situation. A formal decision model measures predicted effects of alternative action. However it is pertinent to note that accounting to the report of the committees on management decision model may indicate a choice which is rejected by management because of more dominant legal, sociological, psychological, political and other considerations not included in the specific mode is only one input into a more complicated decision model, which include quantitative as well as quantitative dimension.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
Budgeting is an important tool in business organization some of these organization have budgeting departments which is saddled with the responsibility of preparing budget statement for each unit, department and branches of the organization the department also monitors the execution of the budget estimates with the purpose of ensuring that the budget target is achieved in terms of revenue and that the expenditure does not exceed the estimates, this is the aspect of budgetary control. Not much problem is encountered during during budgeting process; major problems lies in the area of budgeting control, the following problem are usually encountered in the budgeting control.
- LACK OF FLEXIBILITY: Some budgets are prepared without adequate flexibility to allow for unexpected situation, which may arise during the budget period they are so fixed and tight that they become an end in themselves rather than a mean to an end, In short, rather than serving as a means of controlling operations, the budget control the manager.
- RESISTANCE TO CONTROL: Some managers regard budgetary control as unnecessarily restrictive and an indirect way of controlling their authority. Rather than seeing budget as a means of improving performance and achieving corporate objective they regard budgeting as a witch-hunting exercise, they adopt a protective stance on their budget center and resist any attempt to bring it into harmony with other centers.
BEHAVIOUR ASPECT OF BUGETING: The human aspect of budgeting cannot be over emphasized the success of any budget totally depends upon the goodwill and co-operation of the participants without this, budget statement will become merely a paper exercise with no real impact on the operation of the organization.