TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page - - - - - - - - - -i
Dedication - - - - - - - - - ii
Certification - - - - - - - - - iii
Acknowledgement - - - - - - - - iv
Abstract - - - - - - - - - v
Table of contents - - - - - - - - viii
Background of Study - - - - - - 1
The statement of the Problem
- - - - - 4
The Objective of the Study - - - - - 5-6
- - - - 6
Significance of the study - - - - - 6-7
Limitation of the study - - - - - - 7
Delimited/ scope of the study
- - - - 8
Definition of special terms - - - - - 8
The review of the related literature
2.1 Theoretical Frame Work for the Study - - -
2.2 Historical Background - - - - - - 13-16
2.3 Current literature on postulated above- - -
Design and Methodology - - - - 47
3.1 The research design - - - - - - - 47-48
3.2 The source of data - - - - - - - 48
3.2.1 Primary sources of data - - - - - -
3.2.2 Secondary sources of data - - - - - 48
3.3 The Population for the Study - - - - -
3.4 The Sample Design and determinations of
Sample size - - - - - - - - -
3.5 Method of data collection - - - - - -
3.5.2 Secondary methods of data collection - - - 51
3.6 Methods of data presentation and Analysis- - - 51
4.1 Data presentation - - - - - - -
4.1.2 Demographical Characteristics - - - -
4.1.3 Presentation according to key research
Questions - - - - - - - - -
4.1.4 Analysis Based on Research Questions - - - 68
5.1 Summary of finding - - - - - - - 70
5.2 Recommendations - - - - - - - 70-73
5.3 Conclusions - - - - - - - -
ii. List of frame for sampling
THE BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
organization development is a vital exercise that must be carried out with a
successful conclusion if technological bondage is to be avoided in the nation.
In our society today there is need for adopting a creative approach for our
technological take off. The reason is to encouraged employees to cultivate the
ability of making maximum use of resource available to them, develop new ways
of resources utilization that may come in the course of their job.
Nigeria independence, the nation has gone through a gradual rise in the level
of industrialization and the evolution of both small and complex organization.
An organization as defined by Griffin (1984:86) is a combination of people, or
human efforts, working in pursuit of certain common purposes called
organization goals. It is any group of two or more people working to achieve
a goal or goals.
range from the small business units to the very large and complex corporate
bodies. There are two groups the formal and informal groups.
group come into being as a result of organizational hierarchy which defines
expected relationships among its workers in most cases, a group of people come
together and discuss about the problems of the company, individual problems and
how the problems should be handled. Also, talk about those with different
opinion from other and how such people should be treated or handled.
Furthermore, this kind of group will usually have its mission or area of
activity spelled out.
groups, on the other hand, Michael
(1985:1990).develop in response to the needs of the people making up the group.
As a result they do not have an explicitly stated set of goals nor are there
institutionally defined in and position of authority. These aspects of an
informal group develop as a result of group of individual with the same
objectives. Hence, informal groups are not set up by the management of the
organization but arise as a result of people with similar interest interacting
and also as a result of friendship association. Most cases, group of people
come together and discuss about the company’s problems, some individual
problems and how they should be dealt with, does who have contrary opinion from
others would be convinced, are forced to accept the opinion spell out by other
members of the groups.
above comment succinctly shows the existence of informal groups in an
organization. These groups although not
created by the management of the organization are very powerful and have
considerable influence on individual members. Members are observed to be often
committed to the achievement of the group objectives. These objectives of the
informal groups sometimes go contrary with organizations objectives.
Therefore it is very important for the
management to be aware of the existence of these groups and understand how they
work. Some managers fail to realize the fact that informal groups work under
certain conditions which dominate the formal organization and neglect the efforts
they can be pervasive with some managers themselves belonging to the informal
groups. Depending on whether they are favourable
or unfavourable, this may result to the increase or decrease in the
productivity of the organization. Improper management of the informal groups
may also lead to dissatisfaction of workers, absenteeism, personal turnovers,
grievances and conflicts and these may adversely affect the stability of an
a matter of fact, there are potential benefits to be tapped from the existence
and activities of the informal groups. The management can only tap the benefits
when it is willing to work with them effectively without engaging in measures
to suppress the informal organization.
The Statement of Problem
Management of organizations have
been trying to improve individual productivity through researches and product
development, employment of high skilled and experienced workers. Despite these
efforts, productivity is declining in a organization who is to
be blamed is still declining or has remained low and unimpressive.
What is actually responsible for
the continuous decline in productivity despite serious efforts by the
management, who have control over these group is
yet to be achieved from the above assertions, it become imperative or necessary
to research and conduct an assessment on the influence of informal groups on
informal group activities influence organization decision-making?
To provide answers to this
problem motivated the researcher to carry out this project.
It become imperative or necessary to research
and conduct an assessment on the influence of informal groups on organizational