RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design
For the purpose of the study the cross-section design survey
method was adopted. The independent variable were observed at the same time.
The reason being that the independent variables are relatively stable overtime.
None of the variables controlled or manipulated for data collection purpose,
the longitudinal methods prepared because the variable involved in this
research do not change much quickly overtime. It also saves time and reduce
More so, pre and past responses structure were adopted. The
research design helps in extensive study and testing of the feed backs provided
by the respondents.
There are secondary and primary data which were collected
for the purpose of the study.
The primary data refers to the statistical materials which
we obtained through questionnaires and interview from some respective
The secondary data are those obtained through the government
document lest periodic journals, past records etc, they are simply statistical
material which are not originated from some one else.
The research design as it saves time, economical,
comparative cases information gathering and complete confidentiality of the use
of such information.
3.2 Population of the study
The area of the study of this research work is Benin Depot.
The area of coverage of survey was divided into four geographical zones. These
geographical zones are Benin main town, Ego, Auchi and Okada. These are
industrial Estates area in Benin City Edo State. Each has it unique location
contiguity. The exact geographical area covered for the purpose of this
research work is Benin main town. It is an industrial Estate as well. The study
is conducted only on public limited liabilities companies. The population of
the study is one hundred and seventeen, it comprises of banks, manufacturing
company, insurance companies and merchandise companies. These organization are
properly covered to be public limited companies quoted on the Nigeria Stock
The table below produces the geographical work and the
number of each type of organization find in them. We do not consider all the
companies in the country because of the constraints like finance and a
completed survey (the access to it was not available).
Zone Geographical Banking industry Insurance Manufacturing
Merchandizing Total 1 Benin main town 14 5 6 7 32 2 Ego 12 2 3 4 21 3 Auchi 10
4 6 12 32 4 Okada 13 7 7 5 32 Total 49 18 22 28 117
Benin City Edo State was chosen because of its large
concentration of all investors and it popular. Banking industry are found to be
the sector with the highest frequency and mostly located in all the
geographical units. The insurance companies have the lowest location in the
zones, manufacturing with a total of twenty-two and the merchandizing with a
total of twenty-eight mostly located in Benin main Town. The extension of this
research work to all this sectors were considered to be important because of
their large transactions process and operating activities also mostly found in
all the economy of any nation.
3.3 Sample Size
The ample selected at random from the population of study is
the manufacturing sector location in Benin Main Town, Benin City Edo State. The
study area is found to be comprising of thirty two (32) companies and six (6)
merchandizers. To select the sample size the random sampling method was used.
The geographical unit were first selected at random after which the sector to
be chosen was selected at random.
3.4 Sampling Technique
The simple sampling technique was chosen because of its less
vigorous steps and its assistance in making the work easier and faster. The
advantages that this method serves over other method are;
The selection of sample member is being unbiased
The lest randomness carried out resulting to the selection
of the case study of this project.
The general acceptance by the people is fair.
To be the enhancement of accountability in an organization
seven-up bottling company Benin Depot.
3.5 Research Instrument
According to Esene R.A (2005), a questionnaire is a document
which contains a set of question for eliciting information from respondent on
the subject of research investigation. The questionnaire is the research
instrument selected for this work.
3.6 Validation of the Instrument
The instrument used for this research work as stated before
were the questionnaire and the secondary source (periodicals reports government
document etc) to ensure the validity of this instrument the resource and
research department of the organization were contacted through the telephone
and steps to take were given to ensure that the data needed will be from the
authentic source and the right personnel.
To ensure proper validity of instrument the questions were
adopted from the objective of auditing provided in the statement of standard
international practices of auditing and source from other past research works.
3.7 Reliability of the Instrument
This refers to the consistency of a method od measurement
i.e. the repeated measurements under the same condition will give the same
result. Reliability is the extent to which a measurement is free of variable
This reflected when repeated measures of the same stable
characteristics in the same object show variation. The presence of random
errors in any measurement can cause the decision.
In this research, T-test method was used in testing the
variability of scale. This methods is done by repeating a given test and
comparing the correlation before the results of the replicated and original
3.8 Method of data Collection
Data for this research work are in two categories, the
secondary data are the statistical materials which are not originated by me but
obtained from someone else record. These are not always reliable compare to
primary data. The instrument for these are the journal, textbooks, report from
Nigeria Stock Exchange and news magazines.
The primary data refers to the statistical material which
collected first hand in response to specific questions. The instrument used to
collect these data is the questionnaire. The questionnaire is often called
interviewing by mail because it contains carefully worded questions.
This source is used because it is often very difficult to
secure the information through personal interview. Also make it possible to
measure what a person knows, like and dislikes (i.e. values and preferences)
and what a person feels (i.e. attitudes and beliefs).
3.9 Method of Data Analysis
The research question is tested using the simple percentage
tool or percentage analysis and is presented in table with analysis. The simple
percentage formula is thus:
F X 100
F = frequency of response to each question
N = number (No) of respondents