This study was undertaken to have clearer understanding of
roles, functions and the importance of an accountant to business, activities
revolved round the accountant. It is however expedient to stress at this
junction that a business which is been run without an accountant will one day
run out whether small medium or complex one established will be panting for an
accountant just as a fish pant been for water. This study has been able to
portray the right image of the accountant in various ways by which he achieve
his aims as a business stimulator. All these were gotten through the sample
study of N.N.P.C Warri which provide all the necessary and relevant information
required through the aids of the administered questionnaire.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Table of contents vi
Chapter One – Introduction
1.1 Background of the study 1
1.2 Statement of problem 2
1.3 Objective of the study 2
1.4 Research Question 3
1.5 Significance of the study 3
1.6 Scope of the Study 5
1.7 Research Hypothesis 5
1.8 Limitation of the Study 6
1.9 Definition of Terms 6
Chapter Two – Literature Review
2.1 What is Accounting 8
2.2 Theory of Account 9
2.3 The Various Branches of Accounting 10
2.4 Types of Management Accounting Budget 12
2.5 Objectives of Account 13
2.6 Importance of Accounting 14
2.7 Users of Accounting Information 15
2.8 Who is an Accountant 15
2.9 Functions of Accountant 16
2.10 Persons for an Accountant 17
2.11 The Rules that Govern the Accounting Profession 17
2.12 The Role of an Accountant in an Organisation 19
Chapter Three – Research methodology
3.1 Research design 22
3.2 Population of the Study 22
3.3 Sample Size 23
3.4 Sample Techniques 23
3.5 Research Instrument 24
3.6 Validation of Instrument 24
3.7 Method of Data Collection 24
3.8 Method of Data Analysis 25
Chapter Four – Data Analysis and Presentation
4.1 Introduction 25
4.2 Presentation and Analysis of Research Hypothesis 26
4.3 Discussion of Finding 32
Chapter Five – Summary Conclusion and Recommendations
5.1 Introduction 34
5.2 Conclusion 36
5.3 Recommendation 36
5.4 Suggestions for Further Study 38
Background of the Study
Accounting grew gradually and starts from charge and
discharge to double entry book keeping and ascertainment of profit. In Nigeria
the origin of accounting started from 1965, before then accounting formed an
association of accountant which was later transfer into the institute of
chartered accountant of Nigeria (ICAN) in 1965 by an act of parliament.
Later in 1979, the association of national accountant of
Nigeria (ANAN) was formed by degree 76 signed by a military president general
Ibrahim Babangida before he left 1993. In Nigeria today we have two separate
body (ICAN and ANAN) which every accountant should pass through either of both
before he will be qualified as a charted accountant.
Accounting is the means by which managers are informed of
the financial status and progress of their companies, thus contributing to the
continuing process of planning, control of operation and decision making
(Walgenbach et al 1990). It’s also an activity designed to identify, measure
and communicate information about economic entitles that is intended to be
useful in making economic decisions. (Williams et al 1989).
Statement of the Problem
This research is to reveal to us the main objectives of
accounting, the reason why a business entity should have an accountant and the
significance of accounting in a business entity. This study will further hold
that an accountant is so important and it effect change in a company in this
era of accountability.
Objectives of the Study
The objective of a study is to examine the role of
accounting and entrepreneurship education for self-reliance and sustainable
development in Nigeria. The study considers the accounting profession and the
major role it plays in entrepreneurship development. The major objectives are
The information should be useful to investors and lenders,
be helpful in determining a company’s cash flows, and report the company
assets, liabilities and owners’ equity and the changes in them.
Financial accountant produces financial statement based on
the accounting standard in a given jurisdiction.
Generally accepted accounting principles refer to the
standard framework of guidelines for financial accounting used in any
International financial reporting standard (IFRS) are
designed as common global language for business affairs so that company account
are understandable and comparable across international boundaries.
Can a business succeed without an accountant?
What are the roles played by the accountant in the
stimulation of business?
Does the accountant also perform management function?
Are there still other factor that can enhance the success of
a business outside the role and duties of the accountant?
What level of reliance can be on the activities of the
Significance of the Study
Many freelancers standing out often put off getting their
own accountant due to cost, feeling it is a luxury they simply can’t afford.
However, by doing this they often setup their businesses poorly, pay so much
tax and receive hefty fines for late payments, to has revenue and customs.
As well as being a trusted business adviser and someone to
provide advice on your tax affairs, a good accountant will also provide a host
of other benefits such as:
Time saving: Many freelancers charge by the hour or bill
client based on the amount of time they have worked on a project. That means
every hour you poring over paperwork and tax returns is time that you are not
earring. Handing over the nutty, gritty of your accounts to an expert
accountant will save you time that you could be better spent building your business.
Accountant: Are experts, are at completing tax forms they
need to ensure everything is correctly field with HIARC. Error not only cost
you time but also could cost you, financially due to fines and penalties.
As a freelancer, you will also benefit from financial
advices as your personal; finances are so closely linked to your business
Tax regulation and allowance are always changing so unless
you want to spend weeks each year keeping up to date it makes sense to appoint
This study is beneficial to both the government in the
aspect of planning and controlling policies.
Scope of the Study
The topic contribution of accountant to business success in
Nigeria is a case study chosen to be considered in Ethiopia West transport
Services Company only within the local government council, all other commercial
vehicle are excluded in this case study.
Limitation of the Study
There were some constraints undone during the cause of this
research work which is listed below:
Finance: It was only final year and I had to pay for many
things which need urgent financial assistances. This was what made me
experiences financial difficult that brought about the limitation of this
Time: This is another factor that brought to the assistances
of this research work. There was no enough time for me to travel for the
compilation of information because of my national diploma (ND) examination
which brought down the weight of this research work.
Definition of Terms
Some terms were used in this research work which may not
those outside profession to concern. The terms that are peculiar to accounting
professional such as will be mentioned below:
Capital: This is the money which is used to start up a
business. This is often called the owners equinity.
Current assets; These are the business property which cannot
last for more than one accounting year.
Fixed assets; These are the business property which can last
for more than one accounting year e.g. motor vehicles, plans and machinery.
Long term liabilities: These are long term loans which
cannot be paid within a financial year e.g. loans, bonds.
Short term liabilities: These are debts which could be paid
within one financial year e.g. accruals, creditors bank and overdraft etc.
Budget; This often means planning.
Transaction: This is the means of buying and selling
Audit: This is an independent examination on financial
statement done by an auditor to check the true and fairness of financial
Debentures: This is long term liabilities which is usually
fixed rate of interest. It is also a debt instrument.
Assets: This is the property of the business. This is what
the business has and what they owned and it made up of fixed and current asset.
Financial year: This is also called the fiscal year. It is
the accounting period of the business. It can be defined as an economic period
that a company plan economic activities of the business.