1.1 Background of Study
Buildings are structures, which serve as shelters for man, his properties and activities. They must be properly planned, designed and erected to obtain desired satisfaction from the environment. The factors to be observed in building construction include durability, adequate stability to prevent its failure or discomfort to the users, resistance to weather, fire outbreak and other forms of accidents. The styles of building construction are constantly changing with introduction of new materials and techniques of construction. Consequently, the work involved in the design and construction stages of buildings are largely that of selecting materials, components and structures that will meet the expected building standards and aesthetics on economy basis. Several codes of practice universally accepted are available for the design and construction of buildings and these codes, though foreign, should be followed as a guide to building construction by the building team. A high level of skill is needed in designing and constructing buildings, competence and craftsmanship from the team, which include the Architects, the Engineers or Contractor (Structural, Mechanical and Electrical), and the Local Authority.
In Nigeria like any other countries in the world, building collapse menace is growing at an alarming rate, seemingly uncontrollable or beyond control. The incessant buildings collapse in Nigeria has become a great concern to all the stakeholders and the professionals in the building industry, government, private developers, clients and users, as well as the residents. Fall out of the author’s concern about the increasing incidents of collapse building nation-wide form the basis for this paper to find out the major causes and probable remedial measures to collapse of buildings in Nigeria. Many lives and properties have been lost in the collapse of buildings mostly in Port Harcourt, Abuja and Lagos respectively. Many property owners have developed high blood pressure and some have been sent to an early grave. According to Windapo (2006) “frequent types of buildings that collapse are residential buildings which are either on two, three or four floors.” According to Dada (2002) “Structural Failure has become recurring decimal, a worrisome menace nightmare and an enduring embarrassment”. The horrifying scene of structural failure is no longer news breaker this time around. Really, incidents of collapsed buildings, collapsed bridges or collapsed structures of various types are not peculiar to Nigeria alone. But the current situation is becoming more rampant and embarrassing, most especially as it relates to Lagos State. Unfortunately, there are still a number of buildings of similar circumstances dotting the skyline of many cities in Nigeria.
Building collapse incidence are still regularly occurring despite increasing diffusion of engineering knowledge over the years and this calls for some reexamination of development in building production and control process (Dimuna, 2010). Research was carried out by Bamidele, 2000 and Fadamiro, 2002 on the causes of building collapse in Nigeria and identified the following five (5) major causes which include; natural phenomenon, design error, procedural error, substandard material, poor workmanship, the lack of maintenance, the abuse of use of building etc.
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Research showed that the substandard material and poor workmanship contribute 45% to the overall causes of building collapse in Lagos State. (Ogunsemi, 2002) added that substandard materials amount to 18.4% of the total cause of building collapse while poor workmanship amount to 19%. Building collapse can be as a result of some defect in building which are not quickly put in place by the property owner such as; fungus stain and harmful growth, erosion of mortar joints, peeling paint, defective plastered renderings, cracking of walls and tearing walls, defective rainwater goods, decayed floor boards, insect or termite attack, roof defect, dampness penetration through walls, unstable/faulty foundation, poor installation of air-condition units etc. All these defects in building if not properly controlled and maintained, with time can lead to unexpected building collapse (Gafar, 2004). Building collapse have been a serious problem and concern to the government and professionals in building industry as they have been making efforts in their own ways to reduce this incessant collapse if not totally stopped.
1.3 Objectives of Study
1.To determine the causes and effects of cracks in building constructions projects in Imo state, Nigeria
2.To find out the causes of building failures in building constructions projects in Imo state, Nigeria.
3.To quality of materials used by building construction companies in Imo state, Nigeria
4. To find out the possible prevention and repairs of cracks in building construction project in Imo state.
1.What are the causes and effects of cracks in building constructions projects in Imo state, Nigeria?
2.What are the causes of building failures in building constructions projects in Imo state, Nigeria?
3.What are the materials quality used by building construction companies in Imo state, Nigeria
4. What are the possible prevention and repairs of cracks in building construction project in Imo state?
Significance of Study
The study will be of immense benefit to project managers on how they can effectively manage building project. The study also sorts to give information on causes of cracks on buildings, causes of building failures, effects of cracks on building and possible prevention.
The study also will be of benefit to constructors on choice of project materials to be use for building projects. The study will also contribute to existing scope of knowledge since there are no much literature done on the work.
Scope and limitations of Study
The study which is on the assessment of causes, effect and repairs of cracks in building project in Imo state. The study will make use of selected constructions firms in Abia state, Nigeria. The study will involve randomly selected construction firms in Abia state.
Definition of Terms
Crack: A crack is a type of failure whereby fracture lines are formed on the circumference and/or along the length of a building.