WORK-LIFE BALANCE AND ITS EFFECT ON EMPLOYEE PRODUCTIVITY
Balance is increasing interest in academic literature, legislation and public
sector. It is meaningful daily achievement and enjoyment in life. Organizations
have started introducing various schemes to attract, retain employees and productivity.
Majority employers support the work –life balance concept. Work-life balance
which primarily deals with an employee’s ability to properly prioritize between
work and his or her lifestyle, social life, health, family etc., is greatly
linked with employee productivity, performance and job satisfaction. Where
there is proper balance between work and life, employees tend to put in their
best efforts at work, because their family is happy.
researcher used Merchant bank, Koforidua branch as a case study to find out the
effects improper work-life balance has on the performance of employees in an
methodology, data used in compiling this research were gathered from both
primary and secondary sources. The management and employees of Merchant bank
were issued questionnaires. Text Books, Magazines and News Papers on work-life
balance were also used in compiling this research.
on the findings revealed from the data analysis and interpretation, the
researcher came up with some suggestions and recommendations. The major
findings in this study shows that 92% of the total respondents used for the
study suffer from stress related problems brought about by the nature of their
work. Majority of the respondents complained about common stress illness such
as headaches, stomach pains etc, and their inability to balance family
responsibilities with their jobs. However, the study went ahead to reveal that
employee productivity is greatly affected by the individual’s ability to
balance work and life, as employees with better family ties tend to be more
happy and highly effective in their work place. These findings and
recommendations, in view of the researcher, will help improve productivity and
employee performance if implemented by the organizations in Ghana as well as
the government of Ghana.
work-life balance has become an increasingly pervasive concern to both
employers and employees of most organisations. Work-life balance which
primarily deals with an employee’s ability to properly prioritize between work
and his or her lifestyle, social life, health, family etc., is greatly linked
with employee productivity, performance and job satisfaction. Where there is proper
balance between work and life, employees tend to put in their best efforts at
work, because their family is happy. Most research studies have shown that when
there are happy homes, work places automatically become conflict free and
enjoyable places to be. Increasing attrition rates and increasing demand for
work-life balance have forced organisations to look beyond run of the mill Human
Resources interventions. As a result, initiatives such as flexible working
hours, alternative work arrangements, leave policies and benefits in lieu of
family care responsibilities and employee assistance programmes have become a
significant part of most of the company benefit programmes and compensation
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY AND
origins of research on work-life balance can be traced back to studies of women
having multiple roles. Barnett and Baruch (1985) investigated the psychological
distress connected to the balance of rewards and concerns generated by
individual women’s multiple roles as paid worker, wife and mother. They found
that positive role quality – more rewards than concerns experienced in a given
role – was related to low levels of role overload, role conflict and anxiety.
Based on their research, Barnett and Baruch defined role balance as a “rewards
minus concerns” difference score which could range from positive to negative
the past two decades, various studies on work-life balance practices have been
conducted and have been discussed in publications representing a number of
different academic disciplines – economics (e.g., Johnson & Provan, 1995;
Whitehouse & Zetlin, 1999), family studies (e.g., Hill, Hawkins, Ferris,
& Weitzman, 2001; Raabe, 1990), gender studies (e.g., Nelson, Quick, Hitt,
& Moesel, 1990; Wayne & Cordeiro, 2003), industrial relations (e.g.,
Batt & Valcour, 2003; Eaton, 2003), information systems (e.g., Baines &
Gelder, 2003; Frolick, Wilkes, & Urwiler, 1993), management (e.g., Konrad
& Mangel, 2000; Perry-Smith & Blum, 2000), social psychology (e.g.,
Allen & Russell, 1999; Hegtvedt, Clay-Warner, & Ferrigno, 2002), and
sociology (e.g., Blair-Loy & Wharton, 2002; Glass & Estes, 1997). The
most common approach is to view work-life balance practices through a business
case lens: that is, by offering these practices, organizations attract new
members and reduce levels of work-life conflict among existing ones, and this
improved recruitment and reduced work-life conflict enhance organizational
review of the literature, however, questions this purported link between
work-life balance practices and organizational effectiveness. The majority of
studies investigating the outcomes of work-life practices do not measure
work-life conflict, and thus cannot support this proposed mediated relationship
(Eby, Casper, Lockwood, Bordeaux, & Brinley, 2005). The mechanisms by which
the provision of work-life practices affects both employee behaviour and
organizational performance remain unclear, and under-researched (Allen, 2001;
Schutte & Eaton, 2004). The results of a number of studies reviewed in this
paper appear to suggest that work-life balance practices do not necessarily
influence levels of employee work-life conflict, but instead improve
organizational performance via other routes, such as reduced overheads in the
case of employees working from home, improved productivity Work-Life among
employees working at their peak hours, or social exchange processes arising
from perceptions of organizational support (e.g., Allen, 2001; Apgar, 1998;
Shepard, Clifton, & Kruse, 1996).
study examines the literature to identify the various ways in which
organizational work-life practices may influence organizational performance.
Using a wide range of studies from a variety of disciplines, the empirical
support available for the link between work-life practices and organizational
performance at both the individual and organization level of analysis is
reviewed. Integrating the literature in this fashion provides us with important
new insights regarding potential moderators and mediators of the link between
work-life practices and organizational performance, and suggests new research
questions that may further enhance our understanding of how (or if) this link
1.2.1 COMPANY PROFILE
According to MerchantbankGhana.com, Merchant Bank Ghana Limited
(MBG) is a limited liability company is one of the leading Banks in the
country. It was incorporated in August 1971 and commenced business in March
1972 as the first merchant bank in Ghana. Merchant Bank Ghana Limited
(MBG) provides a comprehensive range of banking services to its
customers and clients, using its worldwide network of correspondent banks and
their agencies. The range of MBG's banking services includes:
and International Banking Operations for Corporate Customers, Small
& Medium Enterprises (SMEs) and, High Net-worth Individuals;
and Capital Market Operations
Purchase and Leasing Services; and
The Bank has two wholly owned specialised subsidiaries namely;
Investment Holdings Limited (MIHL) - dealing in Funds/Portfolio
Management, Money Market Operations, Investment Advisory Services,
Trustee Services and Custodial and Nominee Services;
Stockbrokers Limited (MSL) - dealing in Brokerage Services, Underwriting
of new Issues, and Investor Search & Joint Venture Arrangement; and
The MBG group also has the following additional specialist
services tailored to meet its customers' needs:
Services - maintaining records of Shareholders and Creditors,
facilitating dividend payments to Shareholders; and
Finance & Advisory Services (CFAS)- handling Corporate
restructuring, Joint Venture Arrangement, Company Valuation, Project
Finance; Funds Sourcing, Issuing House Services and General Financial
Advisory Services. And also dealing in Hire Purchase transactions and
The bank has taken advantage of the opportunities offered by the
introduction of Universal Banking Business in Ghana and MBG has fully developed
all three areas of universal banking namely; Retail, Corporate and
Investment. The branch network of Merchant Bank currently stands
at twenty-two (22).
As a universal Bank in Ghana, Merchant Bank (Ghana) limited is committed to
providing quality financial products and services to our customers across our
chosen market and maintaining our place as a leading and preferred financial
institution in Ghana.
To become the leading, the most influential
and best performing financial service provider in Ghana by 2012 and one of
the leading banks in West Africa by 2015
decisions and actions must be based on Unshakeable Facts.
at all times conduct business with a sense of Competitive Urgency.
- We must maintain High Ethical Standards in
all our internal and external relationships.
has over its 30 years of existence achieved a lot, notable amongst which are:
- The establishment of
hire purchase and leasing business in Ghana.
- The promotion and
formation of the first Discount House in Ghana.
- Handled the share issues
of 8 out of 10 companies when there was no Stock Exchange in Ghana in the
- The initiation of the
preparatory work in the establishment of the Ghana Stock Exchange (GSE).
1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT
of work flexibility, high work pressure and longer working hours are stressing
out many Ghanaian workers, reducing their job performance and productivity as
well as causing broken homes. In the community, there is growing concern that
the quality of home and community life is deteriorating. These have resulted to poor employee input
and performance at his or her job place, because an employee, who finds it
difficult to properly balance his or her family life, tends to also have
difficulties managing tasks at his or her workplace, therefore resulting in
poor employee performance. Sparks, Cooper, Fried and Shirom, (1997) in their
study provide some indication that when people spend too many hours at work,
and spend less with their families, their health and work performance begin to
deteriorate. There are various explanations for this associated with affluence,
the growth of single parent families, the privatization of family life and the
lack of local resources and facilities
In addition, the pressures and demands of work, reflected both in longer
hours, more exhaustion and the growth of evening and weekend work leave less
scope for “quality” family time. The
consequences include increases in juvenile crime, more drug abuse, a reduction
in care of the community and in community participation and less willingness to
take responsibility for care of elderly relatives and for the
disadvantaged. While steps to redress
these concerns transcend work and employment, it is nevertheless argued that
the demands of work contribute to a reduced participation in non-work
activities resulting in an imbalance.
there is a view, widely promoted by some management writers but not strongly
supported by sound empirical evidence, that workers are less willing to display
unlimited commitment to the organization.
One reason offered for this is the changing nature of the psychological
contract at work; turbulence in organizations has made it less feasible to
offer secure progressive careers and therefore to justify why workers should be
objectives of the study are:
examine various Work-Life balance practices/programs that exist in Merchant
identify work-Life balance challenges faced by employees of Merchant bank,
identify the influence of imbalance Work-Life practices on organizational
performance of Merchant bank, Koforidua, and the social life of its employees.
identify ways of enhancing proper Work-Life balance practices amongst employees
of Merchant bank, Koforidua.
Work-Life balance practices exist in Merchant bank, Koforidua?
are the Work-Life challenges faced by employees of Merchant bank, Koforidua?
are the influences of imbalance work-life practices on organizational
performance and social life of employees?
what ways can proper work-life practices be enhanced to boost performance in
Merchant bank, Koforidua?