RECRUITMENT POLICIES AND PROCEDURES IN ORGANIZATIONS AND COMPANIES (A CASE STUDY OF ENUGU STATE BROADCATING SERVICE (ESBS)
The research used both primary and secondary data which were collected and analysed. In the analysis done, it revealed that recruitment policies and procedures in ESBS are based purely on merit and also that some of the positions are significantly dependent on academic qualifications
It was discovered that some of the factors militating against recruitment policies and procedures is that personnel managers a times lack the competent skills required for effective recruitment. Also that partiality and discrimination contributes to inefficiency and ineffectiveness.
Consequent upon the problem discovered, many solution was recommended such as advertisement of job vacancies so as to secure a pool of candidates from which suitable ones will be chosen and recruitment of personnel should be undertaken with due regard to relevant academic qualification.
This research work is going to examine the recruitment policies and its procedure in the Enugu State Broadcasting Service.
According to M. Jackson (1998) he said that recruit is securing a supply of possible candidates for jobs in enterprises. It is the first stage in the process of staffing an organization, which continues with, selection and ends with the placement of an individual in a job. Recruitment begins with information about the job to be filled, and then determining the sources of the different kinds of recruit required to fill the vacancies.
Recruitment is thus a human resource function. It is a task that is performed continuously, sometimes in a highly independent way, but no matter the situation, in collaboration with the personnel department. The most important resource which an organization or even a nation can have are its human resources. He see its purpose as to achieve optimal use of human resources through rational human resources system and programmes. It has being continuous because enterprises needs a constant supply of capable employees moving through the system from recruitment to retirement. Staffing and other recruitment practices are thus not performed once at a go but are continuous exercise. The people that are recruited are the vital force of organization, more valuable to it, in many ways, than efficient operational methods or money in the bank. Yet, an effective recruitment programme is not simple especially if the labour requirements of the organisation are diverse, for it is necessary not only to discover appropriate sources but also the compare their value, that is to determine which of them that may be most satisfactory. That is why most authors see the staffing exercise as embracing recruitment, selection and placement.
Blunt and Popoola (1995), they said that most African managers are weighed by their communities, who were able to share in his good fortune by way of being offered paid employment. The societal requirement is quite great because paid jobs are scarce in many African societies, thus one finds that managers of all caliber put pressure on whoever is given the authority to do, to employ not just qualified, but persons recommended to them by friends, relations and towns folks. This is true of Nigeria whose economy is characterized with unemployment. Further more. He asserted that in many organizations, selections are often made on ethnic bases, through “old boy or girl” connections or to correct certain structural imbalances. These anomalies create adverse effects on employees adjustment to work, commitment, discipline and moral in some cases. It is thus strange to find that in most organizations in Africa, to be selected for a particular post demands something more that having the proper qualifications and experience with this contexts, there is another dimension to it which may be unique to Nigeria. This is the amorphous criterion of “Federal character”.
This phenomenon is quite felt in parastatals where the recruitment of staff is done on a “quota” basis whereby every state in the federation cannot have more than an allocated percentage of individual context, recruitment in certain organization is not based purely on merit but also on the state of origin. Persons recruited in manners different from the norms are likely to perform at lower levels, and some have been known to take undue advantage of their relationship with person’s authority in their organization to do whatever they like. This according to many scholars’ is one of the main reasons why things don not work n Nigeria. We have the wrong person in various positions. The search for a grater and vibrant Nigeria demands a stop to this practice, to give way to organizational efficiency and effectiveness.
Any organization worth its salt should have sound personnel policy and recruitment should be part such a policy. Recruitment should start from manpower planning, where future manpower needs forecast in advance. Recruitment of the right caliber of personnel is thus undertaken after careful analysis and in it the manager must seek to discover how qualified workers may be and also to server as basis for selection.
This research study seeks to examine the recruitment policy and procedures of company or organization with the view to ascertaining whether an established policies and procedure is being followed, if there is a pattern, how will this pattern conform in what is expected to be the norm.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Background information of Enugu State Broadcasting Service (ESBS).
Broadcasting both radio and television, started simultaneously in Eastern Nigeria, Enugu regional capital on the 1st October 1960. The radio system comprised on recording and one continuity studio as A.C.B. building Ogui Road. The transmitters were located at Hilltop, Ngwo and consisted of the medium wave and one shout wave transmitter supplied by Redifon of United Kingdom.
These two transmitters and old studio equipment, which were better for a broadcasting museum than for broadcasting, were what ESBS, fell back in 1970 at the end of civil war. The studios were war ravaged to such an extent that no same fellow would have considered using them as such.
Reconstruction of the war ravaged radio studios at Independence Layout was impeded by the fact that the studios were in use on make shift basis and there was no where to move to without disrupting the radio services. This situation gave rise to the building of a music studio at one end of the administration block. The two were medium transmitter and none short wave transmitter plus the complement of studio equipment for both Enugu and Aba were ordered in 1975 and delivered just before the creation of states in 1976.
The ABS matured into ABC in 1977, where the transmitter and emergency studio were finally installed at the 9th Mile Station in July, 1977 and test transmission started in earnest, of course, not without teething problems because of the state of the equipment simultaneously serious work was put into the Hilltop Transmitting Station to revive the Redifon medium wave and Brown Boveri short wave transmitters. In effort when the 9th Mile Station became ABC 2.Thus began the feat of ABC in taking its former pioneer and pacesetter position in Radio Broadcasting in Nigeria.
The ABC 11 concentrated on the General Service of the Anambra Broadcasting Corporation accent on music, news and current affairs and public enlightenment features. While the ABC 11 concentrated on the special service of the Anambra Broadcasting Corporation aimed at target audience special programme production on formal and informal education, Igbo language and culture, music and music research. Rationale, to decongest programme schedules and provide such more comprehensive public service.
Based on ABC policy of service to the people, it may sound incredible, but true, that the maiden medium wave transmitter purchased, installed and used since the inception to the ENBCS in 1960, is still functional and its original provision for everybody to see.
Infact, Anambra Broadcasting Corporation has come of age in Broadcasting.
The creation of states in 1991, that is of Anambra state in Enugu State Broadcasting Service (ESBS). This is due to the fact that it is now in Enugu State.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Recruitment of personnel is a positive function of which the complement is selection. It finds workers and makes them available. However, things go wrong in Nigeria because of the following reason pertaining to recruitment.
One of the problems is that personnel are “square pages in round holes”. By this it means that personnel is not properly organized as what it should be.
Another problem facing recruitment policies and procedures is that personnel manager’s atimes lack the competent skills required for effective recruitment.
Also there is the problem of inefficiency and ineffectiveness of the organization due to partiality and discrimination including the employment of mediocre.
1.3 PURPOSE OF STUDY
The purpose of study of this research is to identify the extent to which laid down principles of recruitment, selection and placement of staff in organization of being followed, and if they are not, the extent to which it has contributed to the ineffectiveness of the organizations under study.
Similarly, the purpose of the study would also be to fine out how the manpower needs: of the different companies under the group are determine, and how candidate are , made aware of, and attracted to the job position.
Again, the study would identify the different sources of recruitment, considering their merits and demerits while studying the induction process adopted in the enterprises.
Finally, the study hopes to identify problems faced by the enterprise in carrying out the recruitment functions.
1.4 SCOPE OF STUDY
The scope of the study of this research work was limited to the Enugu State Broadcasting Service (ESBS). In carrying out this research, questions were asked by the researcher to the staff and employees of ESBS Enugu.
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
Based on the purpose of the study, the following hypothesis will be tested for significance. With the data to be generated during the study.
H0: Most positions in ESBS are not significantly dependent on
H1: Most positions in ESBS are significantly dependent on academic qualifications.
H0: Laid down principles of recruitment, selection and placement of staff in organizations is not vital for organization efficiency.
H1: Laid down principles of recruitment, selection and placement of staff in organizations in vital for organization efficiency.
H0: Most of the positions in Enugu State Broadcasting Service is not dependent on meritocracy.
H1: Most of the positions in Enugu State Broadcasting service are dependent on merit.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The knowledge that will be derived from this study need not be over emphasized as it is immensely of high importance towards the realizing of the objectives of the organizations under study.
Again, the study may be of some help to students, personnel, managers and their staff for enlightenment in its recruitment policy pronouncements on selection and placement of staff in organizations.
1.7 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
A study of this nature could have sufficient validity, if it were made to cover as much wide an area of Nigeria as possible.
Also, for reason of time, the study is limited to Enugu State Broadcasting Service (ESBS). This is as a result that lectures were combined with writing of this project.
Similarly, for reason of finance, it also limited the researcher to only one organization used for the study..
Another limitation is the treatment of the subject matter itself. According to Wendell and Frence (1973), “the selection process follows at least seven steps: completed Application Form, Initial Screening Interview, Testing, Background Investigation, In-depth Selection Interview, Physical Examination and job offer. And these steps have given adequate treatment in foreign textbooks, but little has been done in Nigerian (or African) context.
Thus, most of the review of literature and judgment to be made are based on foreign textbooks whose applicability to the Nigerian context may be suspect.
However, by use of contingency approach, attempts have been made to lower the impact of this limitation.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
i. RECUITMENT: This is the art and science of bringing in new members into the organization. It is the first part of the process of filling a vacancy, the consideration of sources of suitable candidates, making contact with those candidates and attracting applications from them.
ii. PERSONNEL: These are staff employed in an organization to carryout the organizations day to day activities. They are responsible for recruiting new members into the organization.
iii. JOB DESCRIPTION: It specifies the job to be done and the terms by each officer.
iv. POLICY: A policy is a statement of a company’s intent or goal as a guide to individual action.
v. RECRUITMENT PROCEDURE: It compasses the translations of recruitment plans into a series of integrated activities for the achievement of objectives.
vi. APPRAISAL: This refers to the method of finding out the worth of an employee in his job, simply put is “Valuation”.
vii. RECRUITMENT POLICY: This spells out the objectives of the recruitment roces, and is the point from which the manpower procurement programme begins.
viii. JOB ANALYSIS: This is the specification of job involved in an position so as to aid directly in the successful adaptation of new employees in their jobs.