Vegetables are most valuable and
nutritious food commodities, which can considerably contribute to improve the
social welfare and health status of the rural as well as urban masses. They are
emerging as an important source of income for many small-scale farmers.
Different vegetables are now cultivated in various parts of Omoku. ‘Okra’ is
the most important traditional/ popular vegetable of Omokuand is extensively
cultivated in ‘kharif’ and ‘Rabi’ seasons.
esculentus (L.) is a member of the
family Malvaceae and is well-known by many regional names, as lady’s-finger in
England, ‘Gumbo’ in USA, ‘Dherosh’ in Bangladesh, ‘Huang Giu Kui’ in China,
‘Quingombo’ in Spanish, ‘Bhindi’ in Omokuand India. ‘Okra’ is an African word
and is native to northern Africa including the area of Ethiopia and Sudan. It
is a summer and fall crop and is widely cultivated from tropics to sub tropics
Total area under okra cultivation in Omokuis
estimated to be 2.21×105 hectares yielding about 2.86×106 tons of green pods
(Kashif et al., 2008). The average yield of okra in Omokuis7551.95 Kg ha-1
which is very low as compared to other okra growing countries.
The immature, young seed-pods are the
edible part of this plant and are consumed as a vegetable. ‘Okra’ has one of
the most beautiful blooms in the vegetable gardens with an enormous ornamental
value. It is closely related to the tropical flowering hibiscus and cotton.
1.2 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Young leaves can be cooked, eaten and
the flowers are also edible (FAO, 1988). Due to its high iodine contents, the
‘okra’ fruit is considered to be useful for the control of goiter.
The fiber obtained from ‘okra’ stem is used in
paper industry (Martin, 1982; Bell, 1988). The ripe seed of ‘okra’ are,
sometimes roasted and ground as a coffee substitute, while the seed-powder has
been used as substitute for the aluminum salts for water purification (Vaidya
and Nanoti, 1989). It has a long term potential for oil and meal production
(Mays et al., 1990).
‘Okra’ is fat and cholesterol free, very low
in sodium, low in calories, and good source of vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin
B6, foliates, and of the thiamin. ‘Okra’ is a very important food crop in
Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India and Omoku. Besides this, USA, Egypt, Turkey,
Costa Rice, Iraq, Nigeria and Ghana are also some of the major producer of
Agricultural production, in Omoku, is
mainly focused on the cash crops, like, cotton, rice, sugar cane and maize-with
large acreage, intensive inputs and modern techniques of production. Vegetables
are ignored and are left to the domain of private sector, where they are grown
in limited areas with low inputs and an indigenous way of management.
In Omoku, its production is exclusively
handled by the small-scale farmers, while its economic importance is well
established in internal trade. The crop growth and yield is satisfactory in Omoku,
but in its average yield is still low as compared to other countries of the
world. Unfortunately, as with most local vegetables, this crop has so far
received only very limited research attention, in Omoku. Increasing crop loss,
owing to the pests is a major constraint, in sustaining agricultural productivity.
Ewete (1983) has reported 72 insect pest species that attack and damage ‘okra’.
Okra is attacked by number of insect
pest that damage the plant and deteriorates both the quantity and quality of
okra pods. List of major and minor pests are given as under:-
Major Pests Minor Pest
Jassid Leaf miner
Shoot and fruit borer Aphid
Leaf roller Red
Stem weevil Mealy
Sucking insect pests:
Jassid :- Jassid, Amrasca biguttula biguttula (Ishida)
(Homoptera: Cicadellidae) is especially important Polyphagous pest infesting
okra,cotton,brinjal,beans and cucurbits
in the tropics and subtropics, because of the favorable environmental
conditions for growth and development of host and pest, all the year round. In
recent year A. Biguttula biguttula (ishida) has become an increasingly severe
pest of vegetables, as well as of other agronomic crops, and ornamental plants.
Jassid is the most important sucking insects that attack ‘okra’ crop (kakar and
dobra, 1988; singh et al., 1993; Dhandapani
et al., 2003). A. Biguttula biguttula is the most serious not only in omoku(mahmood
et al., 1990) but also in india
(Kumar and Singh, 2002), Bangladesh (ali et
al., 1993), Thailand (mabbett et al.,
1984), and the other southeast Asian countries (Atwal, 1976). ‘Okra’ received
the maximum number of leaf hopper eggs and is the most suitable host for the
survival and feeding of its nymph (hussain et
al., 1979; Bernard and taylo, 1990; sharma and singh, 2002). A. biguttula biguttula causes damage
right from an early seedling stage to the fruit setting stage, resulting in a
loss of 50% in yield (bindra and mahal, 1981). Rawat and sadu (1973) reported
49.8% and 45.1% reduction in the height and number of leaves, respectively, due
to the attack of jassids.
Adult and nymph suck sap from the
under sides of the leaves and toxic effects of the saliva they inject when
feeding on the leaves. Its attack causes yellowing of leaves, reddening of leaf
lamina from the margin and stunted growth.
Whitefly:- whitefly, Bemisia
tabaci is the most dangerous pest that attack on okra, cotton, fruits and
many other crops .It causes severe damage
on okra by sucking sap from the underside of the leaves .They also
secrete honeydew on which sooty mould
develops it is a vector of the yellow vein mosaic diseases .
It is found that in advance stage of
virus infection, the photosynthetic activity is reduced to a tune of 15 to 20
per cent in infested plant (Goodman et al., 1967). The virus is reported to
cause reduction in pigments (Mandahar and Singh, 1972 and Ramaih et al., 1972),
reduction in leaf size, delayed flowering (Dubey, 1974) and reduction in plant
Spotted bollworm: - Among fruit borers, E.vittella and E.insulana are the serious pest of okra and cause a heavy toll of
the crop (Kamal Uddin 1994).
Vittella mainly feed on fruiting parts of the crop resulting in
considerable losses both in quality and quantity (Verma 1999; Bohmfalk et al.
2001). The larvae of Earias spp. Attack on soft and growing tissues especially
terminal buds of main stem, and fruits, which ultimately shed (Munro, 1987;
Atwal, 1994). The caterpillar completes the development inside the shoot and
fruits. Single larvae may feed on a number of shoots and fruits. Damaged plant
tissues serve as entrance for disease causing microorganism such as fungi. Its attack affects the quality of fruit pods.
The fruit pods become distorted and thus unfit for human consumption.
1.3 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
control of field insect pests of okra remains a major production constraint of
farmers. In Nigeria, use of chemical insecticides is in vogue for the control
of insect pest. Although synthetic insecticides application is popular and
effective means of pest control their use in okra production is limited because
the crop was regarded as low value cash crop. Exclusive reliance on
insecticides as a control strategy against insect pest has resulted in several
undesirable effects, like pesticide pollution, resurgence of secondary pests,
insecticide resistance, elimination of beneficial fauna and different human
health problems. There is a need to explore alternative approaches to reduce
the sole dependence on insecticides. The use of plants derived insecticides are
in recent time being investigated by researchers as possible replacement for
synthetic insecticides because they are supposedly safer and may be more
readily available and affordable (Dudu and Williams 1991). Therefore an attempt
was made to study the efficacy of Erythrina excelsa Baker and Aneilema
beniniense aqueous extracts for controlling P. uniforma (Jaq.) and N. dilecta
(Jaq.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) infestation and boost yield of okra
1.4 SIGNIFICANT OF STUDY
plays an important role in the human diet (Kahlon et al. 2007, Saifullah and Rabbani 2009). by supplying fats,
proteins, carbohydrates, phosphorus,
calcium, iron, sulphur, fibre, minerals and vitamins (Lamont
1999, Owolarafe and Shotonde 2004, Gopalan et al. 2007, Arapitsas 2008, Dilruba
et al. 2009). Okra fruit is usually boiled in water resulting in slimy soups
and sauces, which are relished. The fruits also serve as soup thickeners. Okra
seed can be dried, and the dried seeds are a nutritious material that can be
used to prepare vegetable curds, or roasted and ground to be used as coffee
additive or substitute (Moekchantuk and Kumar 2004).
Industrially, okra mucilage is
usually used for glace paper production and also has a confectionery use. Okra
has found medical application as a plasma replacement or blood volume expander (Savello et al. 1980, Markose and Peter
1990, Lengsfeld et al. 2004, Adetuyi et al. 2008, Kumar et al. 2010) and it is said to be very useful against
genito-urinary disorders, spermatorrhoea and chronic dysentery (Nadkarni,
1927). Its medicinal value has also been reported in curing ulcers and relief
from hemorrhoids (Adams, 1975). Tests conducted in China suggest that
an alcohol extract of okra leaves can eliminate oxygen free radicals, alleviate
renal tubular-interstitial diseases, reduce proteinuria, and improve renal
function (Liu et al. 2005, Kumar et al. 2009).
1.5 LIMITATION or SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research project is restricted to the “indentification
of pests affecting okoro in Omoku” using Omoku as a case study. Data used for
the study were gathered from this source.