IDENTIFICATION OF PESTS AFFECTING OKRO IN OMOKU

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IDENTIFICATION OF PESTS AFFECTING OKRO IN OMOKU

CHAPTER ONE

1.1 INTRODUCTION

Vegetables are most valuable and nutritious food commodities, which can considerably contribute to improve the social welfare and health status of the rural as well as urban masses. They are emerging as an important source of income for many small-scale farmers. Different vegetables are now cultivated in various parts of Omoku. ‘Okra’ is the most important traditional/ popular vegetable of Omokuand is extensively cultivated in ‘kharif’ and ‘Rabi’ seasons.

 ‘Okra’, Abelmoschus esculentus (L.)  is a member of the family Malvaceae and is well-known by many regional names, as lady’s-finger in England, ‘Gumbo’ in USA, ‘Dherosh’ in Bangladesh, ‘Huang Giu Kui’ in China, ‘Quingombo’ in Spanish, ‘Bhindi’ in Omokuand India. ‘Okra’ is an African word and is native to northern Africa including the area of Ethiopia and Sudan. It is a summer and fall crop and is widely cultivated from tropics to sub tropics (Kochar, 1986).

Total area under okra cultivation in Omokuis estimated to be 2.21×105 hectares yielding about 2.86×106 tons of green pods (Kashif et al., 2008). The average yield of okra in Omokuis7551.95 Kg ha-1 which is very low as compared to other okra growing countries.

The immature, young seed-pods are the edible part of this plant and are consumed as a vegetable. ‘Okra’ has one of the most beautiful blooms in the vegetable gardens with an enormous ornamental value. It is closely related to the tropical flowering hibiscus and cotton.

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.2 BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Young leaves can be cooked, eaten and the flowers are also edible (FAO, 1988). Due to its high iodine contents, the ‘okra’ fruit is considered to be useful for the control of goiter.

 

 The fiber obtained from ‘okra’ stem is used in paper industry (Martin, 1982; Bell, 1988). The ripe seed of ‘okra’ are, sometimes roasted and ground as a coffee substitute, while the seed-powder has been used as substitute for the aluminum salts for water purification (Vaidya and Nanoti, 1989). It has a long term potential for oil and meal production (Mays et al., 1990).

 

 ‘Okra’ is fat and cholesterol free, very low in sodium, low in calories, and good source of vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin B6, foliates, and of the thiamin. ‘Okra’ is a very important food crop in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India and Omoku. Besides this, USA, Egypt, Turkey, Costa Rice, Iraq, Nigeria and Ghana are also some of the major producer of ‘okra’.

 

Agricultural production, in Omoku, is mainly focused on the cash crops, like, cotton, rice, sugar cane and maize-with large acreage, intensive inputs and modern techniques of production. Vegetables are ignored and are left to the domain of private sector, where they are grown in limited areas with low inputs and an indigenous way of management.

 

 In Omoku, its production is exclusively handled by the small-scale farmers, while its economic importance is well established in internal trade. The crop growth and yield is satisfactory in Omoku, but in its average yield is still low as compared to other countries of the world. Unfortunately, as with most local vegetables, this crop has so far received only very limited research attention, in Omoku. Increasing crop loss, owing to the pests is a major constraint, in sustaining agricultural productivity. Ewete (1983) has reported 72 insect pest species that attack and damage ‘okra’.

 

Okra is attacked by number of insect pest that damage the plant and deteriorates both the quantity and quality of okra pods. List of major and minor pests are given as under:-

 

Major Pests                                                   Minor Pest

Jassid                                                                      Leaf miner

Whitefly                                                                 Grasshopper

Shoot and fruit borer                                             Aphid

Leaf roller                                                              Red cotton bug

Semilooper                                                            Dusky cotton bug

Stem weevil                                                           Mealy bug

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sucking insect pests:                                                 

                                                                                   

Jassid :-  Jassid, Amrasca biguttula biguttula (Ishida) (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) is especially important Polyphagous pest infesting okra,cotton,brinjal,beans and cucurbits  in the tropics and subtropics, because of the favorable environmental conditions for growth and development of host and pest, all the year round. In recent year A. Biguttula biguttula (ishida) has become an increasingly severe pest of vegetables, as well as of other agronomic crops, and ornamental plants. Jassid is the most important sucking insects that attack ‘okra’ crop (kakar and dobra, 1988; singh et al., 1993; Dhandapani et al., 2003). A. Biguttula biguttula is the most serious not only in omoku(mahmood et al., 1990) but also in india (Kumar and Singh, 2002), Bangladesh (ali et al., 1993), Thailand (mabbett et al., 1984), and the other southeast Asian countries (Atwal, 1976). ‘Okra’ received the maximum number of leaf hopper eggs and is the most suitable host for the survival and feeding of its nymph (hussain et al., 1979; Bernard and taylo, 1990; sharma and singh, 2002). A. biguttula biguttula causes damage right from an early seedling stage to the fruit setting stage, resulting in a loss of 50% in yield (bindra and mahal, 1981). Rawat and sadu (1973) reported 49.8% and 45.1% reduction in the height and number of leaves, respectively, due to the attack of jassids.

Adult and nymph suck sap from the under sides of the leaves and toxic effects of the saliva they inject when feeding on the leaves. Its attack causes yellowing of leaves, reddening of leaf lamina from the margin and stunted growth.

 

 

 

 

Description: E:\Amtar study deta\whitefly.jpgWhitefly:-  whitefly, Bemisia tabaci is the most dangerous pest that attack on okra, cotton, fruits and many other crops .It causes severe damage  on okra by sucking sap from the underside of the leaves .They also secrete honeydew  on which sooty mould develops it is a vector of the yellow vein mosaic diseases .

It is found that in advance stage of virus infection, the photosynthetic activity is reduced to a tune of 15 to 20 per cent in infested plant (Goodman et al., 1967). The virus is reported to cause reduction in pigments (Mandahar and Singh, 1972 and Ramaih et al., 1972), reduction in leaf size, delayed flowering (Dubey, 1974) and reduction in plant growth.

 

Description: I:\ \35912-large.jpg

Spotted bollworm: - Among fruit borers, E.vittella and E.insulana are the serious pest of okra and cause a heavy toll of the crop (Kamal Uddin 1994).

 E. Vittella mainly feed on fruiting parts of the crop resulting in considerable losses both in quality and quantity (Verma 1999; Bohmfalk et al. 2001). The larvae of Earias spp. Attack on soft and growing tissues especially terminal buds of main stem, and fruits, which ultimately shed (Munro, 1987; Atwal, 1994). The caterpillar completes the development inside the shoot and fruits. Single larvae may feed on a number of shoots and fruits. Damaged plant tissues serve as entrance for disease causing microorganism such as fungi.  Its attack affects the quality of fruit pods. The fruit pods become distorted and thus unfit for human consumption.

 

 

1.3 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

 

The control of field insect pests of okra remains a major production constraint of farmers. In Nigeria, use of chemical insecticides is in vogue for the control of insect pest. Although synthetic insecticides application is popular and effective means of pest control their use in okra production is limited because the crop was regarded as low value cash crop. Exclusive reliance on insecticides as a control strategy against insect pest has resulted in several undesirable effects, like pesticide pollution, resurgence of secondary pests, insecticide resistance, elimination of beneficial fauna and different human health problems. There is a need to explore alternative approaches to reduce the sole dependence on insecticides. The use of plants derived insecticides are in recent time being investigated by researchers as possible replacement for synthetic insecticides because they are supposedly safer and may be more readily available and affordable (Dudu and Williams 1991). Therefore an attempt was made to study the efficacy of Erythrina excelsa Baker and Aneilema beniniense aqueous extracts for controlling P. uniforma (Jaq.) and N. dilecta (Jaq.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) infestation and boost yield of okra Abelmoschus esculentus.

 

 

1.4 SIGNIFICANT OF STUDY

 

Okra plays an important role in the human diet (Kahlon et al. 2007, Saifullah and Rabbani 2009). by supplying fats, proteins, carbohydrates, phosphorus, calcium, iron, sulphur, fibre, minerals and vitamins (Lamont 1999, Owolarafe and Shotonde 2004, Gopalan et al. 2007, Arapitsas 2008, Dilruba et al. 2009). Okra fruit is usually boiled in water resulting in slimy soups and sauces, which are relished. The fruits also serve as soup thickeners. Okra seed can be dried, and the dried seeds are a nutritious material that can be used to prepare vegetable curds, or roasted and ground to be used as coffee additive or substitute (Moekchantuk and Kumar 2004).

Industrially, okra mucilage is usually used for glace paper production and also has a confectionery use. Okra has found medical application as a plasma replacement or blood volume expander (Savello et al. 1980, Markose and Peter 1990, Lengsfeld et al. 2004, Adetuyi et al. 2008, Kumar et al. 2010) and it is said to be very useful against genito-urinary disorders, spermatorrhoea and chronic dysentery (Nadkarni, 1927). Its medicinal value has also been reported in curing ulcers and relief from hemorrhoids (Adams, 1975). Tests conducted in China suggest that an alcohol extract of okra leaves can eliminate oxygen free radicals, alleviate renal tubular-interstitial diseases, reduce proteinuria, and improve renal function (Liu et al. 2005, Kumar et al. 2009).

 

 

1.5 LIMITATION or SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This research project is restricted to the “indentification of pests affecting okoro in Omoku” using Omoku as a case study. Data used for the study were gathered from this source.

IDENTIFICATION OF PESTS AFFECTING OKRO IN OMOKU

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A Research proposal for identification of pests affecting okro in omoku:
A Review on identification of pests affecting okro in omoku, identification, pests, affecting project topics, researchcub.info, project topic, list of project topics, research project topics, journals, books, Academic writer.
Vegetables are most valuable and nutritious food commodities, which can considerably contribute to improve the social welfare and health status of the rural as well as urban masses. They are emerging as an important source of income for many small-scale farmers. Different vegetables are now cultivated in various parts of Omoku. ‘Okra’ is the most important traditional/ popular vegetable of Omokuand is extensively cultivated in ‘kharif’ and ‘Rabi’ seasons. ‘Okra’, Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) is a member of the family Malvaceae and is well-known by many regional names, as lady’s-finger in England, ‘Gumbo’ in USA, ‘Dherosh’ in Bangladesh, ‘Huang Giu Kui’ in China, ‘Quingombo’ in Spanish, ‘Bhindi’ in Omokuand India. ‘Okra’ is an African word and is native to northern Africa including the area of Ethiopia and Sudan. It is a summer and fall crop and is widely cultivated from tropics to sub tropics (Kochar, 1986). Total area under okra cultivation in Omokuis estimated to be 2.21×105 hectares yielding about 2.86×106 tons of green pods (Kashif et al., 2008). The average yield of okra in Omokuis7551.95 Kg ha-1 which is very low as compared to other okra growing countries. The immature, young seed-pods are the edible part of this plant and are consumed as a vegetable. ‘Okra’ has one of the most beautiful blooms in the vegetable gardens with an enormous ornamental value. It is closely related to the tropical flowering hibiscus and cotton. .. agricultural science project topics

IDENTIFICATION OF PESTS AFFECTING OKRO IN OMOKU

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