BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
independence, the Nigeria government has desperately continued to make
concerted effort in the area of quantitative (but not qualitative) supply of
mass housing through huge budgetary and policy provisions but, surprisingly,
the rate at which existing ones are collapsing calls for an urgent attention.
The site of cracks in residential building scattered across the length and
breadth of Nigeria is quite alarming that it is unimaginable what effects it
will have on the building industry and Nigeria economy as a whole. One could
imagine what edifices these buildings would have been if only they were
constructed accordingly. It has been reported that Nigeria, especially Lagos
State has become the “world’s junk-yard” of collapsed buildings worth billions of
naira (Famoroti, 2005). It is quite unimaginable that a county blessed with so
great potentials in its construction industry can experience such magnitude of cracks
in residential building Fadamiro in 2002 defined building as “an enclosure for
spaces designed for specific use, meant to control local climate, distribute
services and evacuate waste”. Buildings can be defined as structural entities
capable of securing self by transmitting weights to the ground. More so,
buildings are defined “as structures for human activities, which must be safe
for the occupants”(Odulami, 2002). However, these same buildings have been
posing treats and dangers to people either during or after construction as a
result of its collapse. Collapse as a whole occurs when part or whole body of a
structure fails and suddenly gives way, the structure, as a result of this
failure, could not meet the purpose for which it was meant for. Cracks in
residential building is an extreme case of building failure. It means the
super-structure crashes down totally or partially (Arilesere, 2002). Building
failure occurs when there is a defect in one or more elements of the building
caused by inability of the material making up the components of such building
elements to perform its original function effectively, which may finally lead
to cracks in residential building. Buildings are meant to provide conveniences
and shelter to the people, but the same building has been a danger trap to the
same people. Building is expected to meet certain basic requirements such as
buildability, design performance, cost effectiveness, quality, safety and
timely completion (Olusola, Atta & Ayangade, 2002). Generally, buildings
are expected to be elegant and functional but many projects are constructed
that do not meet any of these basic requirements. The recurring incidence of cracks
in residential building, some of which claimed innocent lives is a consequence
of this. Many studies has been carried out and various workshops organized in
major cities of the country by various bodies, government agencies and
institution in order to look into causes of the incidence of cracks in
residential building, but none has been able to come out with how each of the
determined factors directly lead to cracks in residential building in the
country. There are many factors that cause cracks in residential building and
they are structural design and quality management according to Olusola
(2002).The quality management entails material variability, testing
variability, judgment factor, contractors’ variability, poorly skilled workmen
and unprofessional conduct. The study aimed at examining the cases of
residential cracks in residential building with a view of identifying the
causes, effect and solution.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
in residential building is a defect or imperfection, deficiency or fault in a
building element or component. It may also be as a result of omission of
performance. The degree of cracks in residential building can therefore be
related to the extent or degree of deviation of a building from the “as –
built” state which is in most cases represent the acceptable standard within
the neighborhood, locality, state or country. (Ikpo, 1998). However, cracks in
residential building can simply be defined as a total or partial/progressive
failure of one or more components of a building leading to the inability of the
building to perform its principal function of comfort, satisfaction, safety and
stability. The incessant buildings collapse in Nigeria has become a great concern
to all the stakeholders – the professionals in building industry, government,
private developers, clients and users, as well as the neighborhood residents.
Fall out of the researcher’s concern about the increasing incidents of collapse
building nation-wide form the basis for this study to find out the major
causes, effects and probable remedial measures to cracks in residential
buildings in Nigeria.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
following are the objectives of this study:
examine the causes of cracks in residential building.
identify the effects of cracks in residential building.
identify the remedial measures or approaches to cracks in residential building
are the causes of cracks in residential building?
the effects of cracks in residential building?
are the remedial measures or approaches to cracks in residential building?
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
following are the significance of this study:
outcome of this study will educate the general public and the government of the
day on the causes, effect and solutions to the cases of cracks in residential
research will also serve as a resource base to other scholars and researchers
interested in carrying out further research in this field subsequently, if
applied will go to an extent to provide new explanation to the topic
1.7 SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
study on residential cracks in residential building with careful examination of
the causes and the effects with a view of finding a lasting solution to the
issue of incessant cracks in residential building.
constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher
in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the
process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other
academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the
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in residential building: Causes, prevention and remedies (pp. 28-39). The
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