BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The influence of instructional materials
in promoting students’ academic performance and teaching and learning in
educational development is indisputable. The teaching of in Nigerian secondary
schools needs to be properly handled. The materials used by teachers to teach
and drive home their subject points at the primary and secondary school levels
of our education system is incontrovertibly a paramount important issue in
practical classroom interaction and successful transfer of knowledge from the
teacher to the learners.
Instructional materials are
materials which assist teachers to make their lessons explicit to learners.
They are also used to transmit information, ideas and notes to learners
(Ijaduola (1997). Instructional materials include both visuals and audiovisuals
such as pictures, flashcards, posters, charts, tape recorder, radio, video,
television, computers among others. These materials serve as supplement to the
normal processes of instruction.
as a subject came into existence in
1776 via the publication of Adam Smith - the protagonist of the classical
school of thought; and since then, it has assumed many roles especially in both
political and educational circles. The study of is dichotomised into two major
parts, namely microand macroeconomics. While microstudies the behaviour and
operations of the individual units (households, firms and government agencies)
in the economy, macrostudies the entire economy in aggregates and averages
(Umoh, 2007). According to Aromolaran (2006), three major languages are used in
teaching and communicating Economic ideas. These languages include theory or
verbal, geometric or graphical, and algebraic or mathematical language.
is an important subject that must
be credited by students before gaining admission into any tertiary institution
especially the university to study relevant courses like Accountancy, Business
Administration, Insurance, etc. The importance and technicality of this subject
makes it necessary that relevant instructional materials should be used to
teach it to the learners. This fact is supported by Macaulay (1989) who asserts
that visual aids make lesson come alive and help students to learn better.
It is against this background that
this study attempts to examine the extent to which the utilization of
instructional materials could advance senior secondary school students
performance in Economics.
Poor academic achievement in could be
attributed to many factors among which teacher’s strategy itself was considered
as an important factor. This implies that the mastery of concepts might not be
fully achieved without the use of instructional materials. The teaching of
without instructional materials may certainly result in poor academic
achievement. Franzer , Okebukola and Jegede (1992) stressed that a
professionally qualified science teacher no matter how well trained, would
unable to put his ideas into practice if the school setting lacks the equipment
and materials necessary for him or her to translate his competence into
Bassey (2002) opined that Science is
resource intensive, and in a period of economic recession, it may be very
difficult to find some of the electronic gadgets and equipment for the teaching
of in schools adequately. A situation that is further compounded by the
galloping inflation in the country and many at times, some of the imported
sophisticated materials and equipment are found expensive and irrelevant; hence
the need to produce materials locally.
Researchers such as Obioha (2006) and
Ogunleye (2002) reported that there were inadequate resources for teaching
Science subjects in secondary schools in Nigeria. They further stated that the
available ones are not usually in good conditions. There is the need therefore,
for improvisation. Adebimpe (1997) and Daramola, (2008) however noted that
improvisation demands adventure, creativity, curiosity and perseverance on the
part of the teacher, such skills are only realizable through well-planned
training programme on improvisation.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The act of teaching is
fundamentally concerned with passing ideas, skills and attitude from the
teacher to the learner. In Nigeria, for example experience has shown that
spoken words alone in the communication of ideas are grossly ineffective and
inefficient in producing desired learning outcomes. Every year, when the
results of public examination are released, there has always been mass failure
in Economics. The reason for this could be ascribed to the fact that there are
topics in that pose serious problem of comprehension to students. These topics
cannot be taught effectively without the use of relevant instructional
materials to make the learning practical. On the foregoing, scholars like
Mutebi and Matora (1994) have emphasized the effect of instructional materials
utilisation on teaching and learning. According to them, we learn and remember
10% of what we hear, 40% of what we discuss with others and as high as 80% of
what we experience directly or practice. However, the questions here are: does
the use of instructional materials really influence students’ academic
performance? Is teaching effectiveness enhanced by the use of instructional
Could students’ learning be
advanced by the use of instructional materials? Finding answers to these
questions and more summarizes the entire problem of this study.
OBJECTIES OF THE STUDY
The objectives of this study are:
To examine the influence of
instructional material utilisation on the teaching of in Senior Secondary
Schools in Lagos State;
To ascertain the extent to which Senior
Secondary School student’s learning of can be influenced by the use of
To determine whether there will be any
difference in the academic performance of secondary schools students in due to
the use of instructional materials.
In order to achieve the objectives
of this study, the following research questions were raised to guide the
Will the use of instructional materials
influence the teaching and application of in senior secondary schools?
To what extent can senior secondary
school students’ learning of be influenced by the use of instructional
Will there be any difference in the
academic performance of senior secondary school students in due to the use of
The following null hypotheses were
stated for the study.
The use of instructional materials will
not have significant influence on the teaching of in senior secondary schools.
The use of instructional material will
not have significant influence on secondary school students’ learning of
There will be no significant difference
in the performance of students in due to the use of instructional materials.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The use of instructional materials
gives the learner opportunity to touch, smell or taste objects in the teaching
and learning process. Consequently, knowledge passed unto the students at
different levels of educational instructions should be well planned and properly
allied with relevant instructional materials for clarity and comprehensibility.
Hence the significance of this study to the students, teachers, curriculum
planners, educational system and the society at large.
To the students, the effective use
of instructional materials would enable them to effectively learn and retain
what they have learnt and thereby advancing their performance in the subject in
question. This is because according to Nwadinigwe (2000), learning is a process
through which knowledge, skills, habits, facts, ideas and principles are
acquired, retained and utilized; and the only means of achieving this is
through the use of instructional materials.
The study would help enhance
teachers’ teaching effectiveness and productivity. This is in line with
assertion of Ekwueme and Igwe (2001) who noted that it is only the teachers who
will guarantee effective and adequate usage of instructional materials and
thereby facilitate success. Consequently a teacher who makes use of appropriate
instructional materials to supplement his teaching will help enhance students’
innovative and creative thinking as well as help them become plausibly
spontaneous and enthusiastic. Oremeji (2002) supportively asserts that any
teacher who takes advantage of these resources and learns to use them correctly
will find that they make almost an incalculable contribution to instruction. He
further says that instructional materials are of high value in importing
information, clarifying difficult and abstract concepts, stimulating thought,
sharpening observation, creating interest and satisfying individual difference.
The study is also significant to
the educational system and society at large. This is because when teachers
solidify their teaching with instructional materials and the learners learn
effectively, the knowledge acquired will reflect in the society positively.
Students will be able to understand the functioning of the economy, interpret
government’s economic policies and activity and perform economically better in
the choice of life and work.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study is focused on
investigating the effect of instructional material utilisation on advancing
senior secondary school students’ performance in in Lagos State. Due to time
and financial constraints, the study is limited to Kosofe Local Government Area
of Lagos. This is because the researcher resides in this local government area
and as such had the opportunity of having a comprehensive knowledge of the area
and its environs. Besides, the study involves only the S.S-2 students of the
senior secondary schools in Kosofe Local Government Area of Lagos State.
LIMITATIONS OF STUDY
The only limitation faced by the researcher in the
course of carrying out this study was the delay in getting data from the
various respondents. Most respondents were reluctant in filling questionnaires
administered to them due to their busy schedules and nature of their work. The
researcher found it difficult to collect responses from the various
respondents, and this almost hampered the success of this study.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
The relevant terms below were
operationally defined relative to their usage in this study.
This is the change (outcome) that is brought about in a person (s) or something
by another person (s) or thing; that is the way in which an event, action or
person changes someone or something.
§ Academic performance:
This is regarded as the display of knowledge attained or skills, shown in the
school subjects such achievements are indicated by test scores or by marks
assigned by teachers. It is the school evaluation of students’ classroom work
as quantified on the basis of marks or grades.
§ Utilisation: The
act of using something to achieve a purpose
§ Instructional Material: What
the teacher uses to make the lesson more interesting and understandable.